Use and Impact of Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Interventions


      RCTs have found that type 2 diabetes can be prevented among high-risk individuals by metformin medication and evidence-based lifestyle change programs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the use of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice settings and determine the impact on diabetes-related clinical outcomes.


      The analysis performed in 2020 used 2010‒2018 electronic health record data from 69,434 patients aged ≥18 years at high risk for type 2 diabetes in 2 health systems. The use and impact of prescribed metformin, lifestyle change program, bariatric surgery, and combinations of the 3 were examined. A subanalysis was performed to examine uptake and retention among patients referred to the National Diabetes Prevention Program.


      Mean HbA1c values declined from before to after intervention for patients who were prescribed metformin (−0.067%; p<0.001) or had bariatric surgery (−0.318%; p<0.001). Among patients referred to the National Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle change program, the type 2 diabetes postintervention incidence proportion was 14.0% for nonattendees, 12.8% for some attendance, and 7.5% for those who attended ≥4 sessions (p<0.001). Among referred patients to the National Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle change program, uptake was low (13% for 1‒3 sessions, 15% for ≥4 sessions), especially among males and Hispanic patients.


      Findings suggest that metformin and bariatric surgery may improve HbA1c levels and that participation in the National Diabetes Prevention Program may reduce type 2 diabetes incidence. Efforts to increase the use of these interventions may have positive impacts on diabetes-related health outcomes.
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