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United Nations Office On Drugs & Crime. World drug report 2021. CrimRxiv. Published online June 24, 2021. https://doi.org/10.21428/cb6ab371.e39c4e60.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019 Annual surveillance report of drug-related risks and outcomes - United States surveillance special report. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/pubs/2019-cdc-drug-surveillance-report.pdf. Published November 1, 2019. Accessed May 28, 2022.
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- Consumption of prescription opioids for pain: a comparison of opioid use in the United States and other countries.Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC2021Published June 2. Accessed May 28, 2022)
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- Increase in fatal drug overdoses across the United States driven by synthetic opioids before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA2020Published December 17Accessed May 28, 2022)
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- Socioeconomic risk factors for fatal opioid overdoses in the United States: findings from the Mortality Disparities in American Communities Study (MDAC).PLoS One. 2020; 15e0227966https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227966
- Social vulnerabilities for substance use: stressors, socially toxic environments, and discrimination and racism.Neuropharmacology. 2021; 188108518https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108518
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- The role of physicians in addressing social determinants of health.JAMA. 2020; 323: 1551-1552https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1637
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- Evidence-based interventions for adolescent opioid use disorder what might work for high-risk Ohio counties?.Urban Institute, Washington, DC2018https://urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/98990/evidence-based_interventions_for_adolescent_opioid_use_disorder.pdf(Published September. Accessed May 28, 2022)
- PROSPER delivery of universal preventive interventions with young adolescents: long-term effects on emerging adult substance misuse and associated risk behaviors.Psychol Med. 2017; 47: 2246-2259https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291717000691
- Strategies to identify patient risks of prescription opioid addiction when initiating opioids for pain: a systematic review.JAMA Netw Open. 2019; 2e193365https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3365
- How people obtain the prescription pain relievers they misuse.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD2017Published January 12. Accessed May 28, 2022)
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- Laws limiting the prescribing or dispensing of opioids for acute pain in the United States: a national systematic legal review.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019; 194: 166-172https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.09.022
- Safe practice recommendations for safer opioid prescribing: measures and clinical decision support.Partnerships for Health IT patient Safety, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD2019Accessed May 28, 2022)
A comprehensive public health framework to address the opioid crisis. ASTHO. https://my.astho.org/opioids/home. Accessed May 28, 2022.
- Healthcare payer strategies to reduce the harms of opioids.Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Baltimore, MD2017Published January. Accessed May 28, 2022)
- No shortcuts to safer opioid prescribing.N Engl J Med. 2019; 380: 2285-2287https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1904190
- Indication-specific opioid prescribing for U.S. patients with Medicaid or private insurance, 2017.JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3e204514https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4514
- Opioid prescribing by primary care providers: a cross-sectional analysis of nurse practitioner, physician assistant, and physician prescribing patterns.J Gen Intern Med. 2020; 35: 2584-2592https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05823-0
- Differences in opioid prescribing among generalist physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants.Pain Med. 2020; 21: 76-83https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnz005
- Comparison of opioid prescribing by dentists in the United States and England.JAMA Netw Open. 2019; 2e194303https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4303
- Strategies to prevent opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion that may also reduce the associated costs.Am Health Drug Benefits. 2011; 4: 107-114
- Improving adherence to long-term opioid therapy guidelines to reduce opioid misuse in primary care: a cluster-randomized clinical trial.JAMA Intern Med. 2017; 177: 1265-1272https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2468
- Clinical decision support systems for the practice of evidence-based medicine.J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2001; 8: 527-534https://doi.org/10.1136/jamia.2001.0080527
- The effectiveness of prescription drug monitoring programs at reducing opioid-related harms and consequences: a systematic review.BMC Health Serv Res. 2019; 19: 784https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4642-8
- Systematic literature review of prescription drug monitoring programs.AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2018; 2018 (Accessed May 28, 2022): 1478-1487
- Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription opioid overdose?.Addiction. 2017; 112: 1773-1783https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13741
- Implementation of prescription drug monitoring programs associated with reductions in opioid-related death rates.Health Aff (Millwood). 2016; 35: 1324-1332https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1496
- Interventions for postsurgical opioid prescribing: a systematic review.JAMA Surg. 2018; 153: 948-954https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2018.2730
- No refills: the durable impact of a multifaceted effort by surgical trainees to minimize the prescription of postoperative opioids.Surgery. 2019; 166: 758-763https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.05.021
- Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic.National Academies Press, 2017https://doi.org/10.17226/24781
- Tapering long-term opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain: evidence and recommendations for everyday practice.Mayo Clin Proc. 2015; 90: 828-842https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.04.003
- Patient outcomes in dose reduction or discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy: a systematic review.Ann Intern Med. 2017; 167: 181-191https://doi.org/10.7326/M17-0598
- Best practices, research gaps, and future priorities to support tapering patients on long-term opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain in outpatient settings.NAM Perspect. 2020; (2020:10.31478/202008c)https://doi.org/10.31478/202008c
- The Role of Nonpharmacological Approaches to Pain Management: Proceedings of a Workshop.The National Academies Press, Washington, DC2019https://doi.org/10.17226/25406
- Alternatives to opioids for pain management in the emergency department decreases opioid usage and maintains patient satisfaction.Am J Emerg Med. 2019; 37: 38-44https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.04.043
- Noninvasive nonpharmacological treatment for chronic pain: a systematic review update.Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD2020Published April. Accessed May 28, 2022)
- Screening for unhealthy drug use: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.JAMA. 2020; 323: 2301-2309https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8020
- Association of opioid agonist treatment with all-cause mortality and specific causes of death among people with opioid dependence: a systematic review and meta-analysis [published correction appears in JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(9):1044] [published correction appears in JAMA Psychiatry. 2022;79(5):516].JAMA Psychiatry. 2021; 78: 979-993https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0976
- Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Save Lives.The National Academies Press, Washington, DC2019https://doi.org/10.17226/25310
- Comparative effectiveness of different treatment pathways for opioid use disorder.JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3e1920622https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20622
- Acceptability and efficacy of naltrexone for criminal justice-involved individuals with opioid use disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Addiction. 2020; 115: 1413-1425https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14946
- Detoxification and substance abuse treatment. treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series, no. 45.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD2015 (https://store.samhsa.gov/product/TIP-45-Detoxification-and-Substance-Abuse-Treatment/SMA15-4131. Published October. Accessed May 28, 2022)
- National and state treatment need and capacity for opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment.Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: e55-e63https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302664
- Improving access to evidence-based medical treatment for opioid use disorder: strategies to address key barriers within the treatment system.NAM Perspect. 2020; (2020:10.31478/202004b)https://doi.org/10.31478/202004b
- Characteristics of U.S. counties with high opioid overdose mortality and low capacity to deliver medications for opioid use disorder.JAMA Netw Open. 2019; 2e196373https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.6373
- Telemedicine-delivered treatment interventions for substance use disorders: a systematic review.J Subst Abuse Treat. 2019; 101: 38-49https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2019.03.007
- Changes in access to medication treatment during COVID-19 telehealth expansion and disparities in telehealth use for Medicare beneficiaries with opioid use disorder.Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Baltimore, MDJanuary 2022Published January. Accessed May 28, 2022)
- Methadone in primary care - one small step for Congress, one giant leap for addiction treatment.N Engl J Med. 2018; 379: 7-8https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1803982
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- Why buprenorphine is so successful in treating opiate addiction in France.Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2007; 9: 358-364https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-007-0046-2
- Rapid adoption of low-threshold buprenorphine treatment at California emergency departments participating in the CA Bridge Program.Ann Emerg Med. 2021; 78: 759-772https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.05.024
- Implementation and evaluation of Missouri's Medication First treatment approach for opioid use disorder in publicly- funded substance use treatment programs.J Subst Abuse Treat. 2020; 108: 55-64https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2019.06.015
- Differences in availability and use of medications for opioid use disorder in residential treatment settings in the United States.JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3e1920843https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20843
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- Association between Medicaid expansion and rates of opioid-related hospital use.JAMA Intern Med. 2020; 180: 753-759https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0473
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Foundation. Opioid safety toolkit. California Health Care. https://www.chcf.org/resource/opioid-safety-toolkit/. Accessed May 28, 2022.
Opioid agonist therapy gap coverage program. Government of Alberta Canada. https://www.alberta.ca/opioid-agonist-therapy-gap-coverage-program.aspx#jumplinks-4. Updated December 1, 2021. Accessed May 28, 2022.
- Buprenorphine coverage in the Medicare Part D program for 2007 to 2018.JAMA. 2019; 321: 607-609https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.20391
National Council for Behavioral Health, Vital Strategies. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder in jails and prisons: a planning & implementation toolkit. https://www.thenationalcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/MAT_in_Jails_Prisons_Toolkit_Final_12_Feb_20.pdf. Accessed May 28, 2022.
- Interventions for incarcerated adults with opioid use disorder in the United States: a systematic review with a focus on social determinants of health.PLoS One. 2020; 15e0227968https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227968
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- Public policy statement on access to medications for addiction treatment for persons under community correctional control.American Society of Addiction Medicine, Chevy Chase, MD2021https://www.asam.org/advocacy/public-policy-statements/details/public-policy-statements/2021/08/09/access-to-medications-for-addiction-treatment-for-persons-under-community-correctional-control(Published January 20. Accessed May 28, 2022)
- Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder in jails and prisons: a planning and implementation toolkit.National Council for Behavioral Health and Vital Strategies, Washington, DC2020https://www.thenationalcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/MAT_in_Jails_Prisons_Toolkit_Final_12_Feb_20.pdf(Published January. Accessed May 28, 2022)
- The Substance Use Intervention Team: a preliminary analysis of a population-level strategy to address the opioid crisis at an academic health center.J Addict Med. 2019; 13: 460-463https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000520
- Effects of Housing First approaches on health and well-being of adults who are homeless or at risk of homelessness: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019; 73: 379-387https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210981
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- Expanding access to naloxone: a review of distribution strategies.Penn LDI, Philadelphia, PA2019https://ldi.upenn.edu/our-work/research-updates/expanding-access-to-naloxone-a-review-of-distribution-strategies/(Published May 29. Accessed May 28, 2022)
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