Advertisement

Community Health Workers to Increase Cancer Screening: 3 Community Guide Systematic Reviews

Published:December 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2022.10.016

      Introduction

      Many in the U.S. are not up to date with cancer screening. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of interventions engaging community health workers to increase breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening.

      Methods

      Authors identified relevant publications from previous Community Guide systematic reviews of interventions to increase cancer screening (1966 through 2013) and from an update search (January 2014–November 2021). Studies written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals were included if they assessed interventions implemented in high-income countries; reported screening for breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer; and engaged community health workers to implement part or all of the interventions. Community health workers needed to come from or have close knowledge of the intervention community.

      Results

      The review included 76 studies. Interventions engaging community health workers increased screening use for breast (median increase=11.5 percentage points, interquartile interval=5.5‒23.5), cervical (median increase=12.8 percentage points, interquartile interval=6.4‒21.0), and colorectal cancers (median increase=10.5 percentage points, interquartile interval=4.5‒17.5). Interventions were effective whether community health workers worked alone or as part of a team. Interventions increased cancer screening independent of race or ethnicity, income, or insurance status.

      Discussion

      Interventions engaging community health workers are recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force to increase cancer screening. These interventions are typically implemented in communities where people are underserved to improve health and can enhance health equity. Further training and financial support for community health workers should be considered to increase cancer screening uptake.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

      1. U.S. cancer statistics data visualizations tool, based on 2021 submission data (1999–2019). HHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute. www.cdc.gov/cancer/dataviz. Updated November 2022. Accessed December 14, 2022.

      2. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Breast cancer: screening.
        U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Rockville, MD2016 (Published January 11,. Accessed October 12, 2022)
      3. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Cervical cancer: screening.
        U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Rockville, MD2018 (Published August 21Accessed October 12, 2022)
      4. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Colorectal cancer: screening.
        U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Rockville, MD2021 (Published May 18Accessed October 12, 2022)
        • Sabatino SA
        • Thompson TD
        • White MC
        • et al.
        Cancer screening test receipt - United States, 2018.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021; 70: 29-35https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7002a1
      5. Cancer objectives. Healthy People 2030, HHS, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/cancer. Updated December 2022. Accessed December 14, 2022.

        • White A
        • Thompson TD
        • White MC
        • et al.
        Cancer screening test use-United States, 2015.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017; 66: 201-206https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6608a1
        • Smith-Bindman R
        • Miglioretti DL
        • Lurie N
        • et al.
        Does utilization of screening mammography explain racial and ethnic differences in breast cancer?.
        Ann Intern Med. 2006; 144: 541-553https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-144-8-200604180-00004
        • Wong MD
        • Ettner SL
        • Boscardin WJ
        • Shapiro MF.
        The contribution of cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and survival to racial differences in years of life expectancy.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 24: 475-481https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-009-0912-1
      6. Occupational outlook handbook, health educators and community health workers. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. https://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/health-educators.htm. Updated October 4, 2022. Accessed October 12, 2022.

      7. U Lehmann and D Sanders, Community health workers: what do we know about them? The state of evidence on programmes, activities, costs and impact on health outcomes of using community health workers, 2007, WHO; Geneva, Switzerland https://chwcentral.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Community-Health-Workers-What-do-we-know-about-them.pdf, Published January 2007 Accessed December 14, 2022.

        • American Public Health Association
        APHA governing council resolution 2001–15. Recognition and support for community health workers’ contributions to meeting our nation's health care needs.
        American Public Health Association, Washington, DC2001 (PublishedAccessed October 12, 2022)
        • Kash BA
        • May ML
        • Tai-Seale M.
        Community health worker training and certification programs in the United States: findings from a national survey.
        Health Policy. 2007; 80: 32-42https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2006.02.010
        • Cherrington A
        • Ayala GX
        • Elder JP
        • Arredondo EM
        • Fouad M
        • Scarinci I.
        Recognizing the diverse roles of community health workers in the elimination of health disparities: from paid staff to volunteers.
        Ethn Dis. 2010; 20: 189-194
        • Jacob V
        • Chattopadhyay SK
        • Hopkins DP
        • et al.
        Economics of community health workers for chronic disease: findings from Community Guide systematic reviews.
        Am J Prev Med. 2019; 56: e95-e106https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.10.009
        • Krieger JW
        • Takaro TK
        • Song L
        • Weaver M.
        The Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project: a randomized, controlled trial of a community health worker intervention to decrease exposure to indoor asthma triggers.
        Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 652-659https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.042994
        • Norris SL
        • Chowdhury FM
        • Van Le K
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of community health workers in the care of persons with diabetes.
        Diabet Med. 2006; 23: 544-556https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01845.x
        • Kenya S
        • Jones J
        • Arheart K
        • et al.
        Using community health workers to improve clinical outcomes among people living with HIV: a randomized controlled trial.
        AIDS Behav. 2013; 17: 2927-2934https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-013-0440-1
      8. Roland KB, Milliken EL, Rohan EA, et al. Use of community health workers and patient navigators to improve cancer outcomes among patients served by Federally Qualified Health Centers: a systematic literature review. Health Equity. 2017;1(1):61–76. https://doi.org/10.1089/heq.2017.0001.

        • Verhagen I
        • Steunenberg B
        • de Wit NJ
        • WJ Ros
        Community health worker interventions to improve access to health care services for older adults from ethnic minorities: a systematic review.
        BMC Health Serv Res. 2014; 14: 497https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-014-0497-1
        • Wadler BM
        • Judge CM
        • Prout M
        • Allen JD
        • Geller AC.
        Improving breast cancer control via the use of community health workers in South Africa: a critical review.
        J Oncol. 2011; 2011150423https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/150423
        • Wells KJ
        • Luque JS
        • Miladinovic B
        • et al.
        Do community health worker interventions improve rates of screening mammography in the United States? A systematic review.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20: 1580-1598https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0276
        • Scott K
        • Beckham SW
        • Gross M
        • et al.
        What do we know about community-based health worker programs? A systematic review of existing reviews on community health workers.
        Hum Resour Health. 2018; 16: 39https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-018-0304-x
        • Briss PA
        • Zaza S
        • Pappaioanou M
        • et al.
        Developing an evidence-based guide to Community Preventive Services–methods. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18: 35-43https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(99)00119-1
        • Zaza S
        • Wright-De Agüero LK
        • Briss PA
        • et al.
        Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Task force on community preventive services.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18 (1): 44-74https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(99)00122-1
      9. Methods manual for community guide systematic reviews. Guide to the Community Preventive Services. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/methods-manual. Updated September 2, 2021. Accessed October 12, 2022.

      10. Cancer screening: multicomponent interventions breast cancer. Community Preventive Services Task Force. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/cancer-screening-multicomponent-interventions-breast-cancer. Updated September 24, 2020. Accessed October 12, 2022.

      11. Cancer screening: multicomponent Interventions cervical cancer. Community Preventive Services Task Force. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/cancer-screening-multicomponent-interventions-cervical-cancer. Updated September 24, 2020. Accessed October 12, 2022.

      12. Cancer screening: multicomponent Interventions colorectal cancer. Community Preventive Services Task Force. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/cancer-screening-multicomponent-interventions-colorectal-cancer. Updated September 24, 2020. Accessed October 12, 2022.

        • Sabatino SA
        • Lawrence B
        • Elder R
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of interventions to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers: nine updated systematic reviews for the guide to community preventive services.
        Am J Prev Med. 2012; 43: 97-118https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.04.009
      13. World Bank country and lending groups. The World Bank. https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519#High_income. Updated December 2022. Accessed December 14, 2022.

        • Husaini BA
        • Emerson JS
        • Hull PC
        • Sherkat DE
        • Levine RS
        • Cain VA.
        Rural-urban differences in breast cancer screening among African American women.
        J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2005; 16 (4): 1-10https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2005.0124
        • Adegboyega A
        • Aleshire M
        • Wiggins AT
        • Palmer K
        • Hatcher J.
        A motivational interviewing intervention to promote CRC screening: a pilot study.
        Cancer Nurs. 2022; 45: E229-E237https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000905
        • Ahmed NU
        • Haber G
        • Semenya KA
        • Hargreaves MK.
        Randomized controlled trial of mammography intervention in insured very low-income women.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19: 1790-1798https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0141
        • Aitaoto N
        • Braun KL
        • Estrella J
        • Epeluk A
        • Tsark J.
        Design and results of a culturally tailored cancer outreach project by and for Micronesian women.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2012; 9: E82https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd9.100262
        • Allen JD
        • Pérez JE
        • Tom L
        • Leyva B
        • Diaz D
        • Idalí Torres MI
        A pilot test of a church-based intervention to promote multiple cancer-screening behaviors among Latinas.
        J Cancer Educ. 2014; 29: 136-143https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-013-0560-3
      14. B Allen, Jr. and S. Bazargan-Hejazi, Evaluating a tailored intervention to increase screening mammography in an urban area, J Natl Med Assoc, 97(10), 2005, 1350–1360. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2594691/pdf/jnma00299-0040.pdf, Accessed December 14, 2022

        • Bird JA
        • McPhee SJ
        • Ha NT
        • Le B
        • Davis T
        • Jenkins CN.
        Opening pathways to cancer screening for Vietnamese-American women: lay health workers hold a key.
        Prev Med. 1998; 27: 821-829https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1998.0365
        • Braun KL
        • Thomas Jr, WL
        • Domingo JL
        • et al.
        Reducing cancer screening disparities in Medicare beneficiaries through cancer patient navigation.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015; 63: 365-370https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13192
        • Briant KJ
        • Sanchez JI
        • Ibarra G
        • et al.
        Using a culturally tailored intervention to increase colorectal cancer knowledge and screening among Hispanics in a rural community.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018; 27: 1283-1288https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-1092
        • Byrd TL
        • Wilson KM
        • Smith JL
        • et al.
        AMIGAS: a multicity, multicomponent cervical cancer prevention trial among Mexican American women.
        Cancer. 2013; 119: 1365-1372https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27926
      15. K Cardarelli, R Jackson, M Martin, et al., Community-based participatory approach to reduce breast cancer disparities in south Dallas, Prog Community Health Partnersh, 5(4), 2011, 375–385. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4238068/pdf/nihms439985.pdf, Accessed December 14, 2022

        • Coronado GD
        • Beresford SA
        • McLerran D
        • et al.
        Multilevel intervention raises Latina participation in mammography screening: findings from ¡Fortaleza Latina!.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25: 584-592https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-1246
        • Coronado GD
        • Golovaty I
        • Longton G
        • Levy L
        • Jimenez R.
        Effectiveness of a clinic-based colorectal cancer screening promotion program for underserved Hispanics.
        Cancer. 2011; 117: 1745-1754https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25730
        • Cuaresma CF
        • Sy AU
        • Nguyen TT
        • et al.
        Results of a lay health education intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among Filipino Americans: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
        Cancer. 2018; 124: 1535-1542https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31116
        • Dignan MB
        • Michielutte R
        • Wells HB
        • et al.
        Health education to increase screening for cervical cancer among Lumbee Indian women in North Carolina.
        Health Educ Res. 1998; 13: 545-556https://doi.org/10.1093/her/13.4.545
        • Dunn SF
        • Lofters AK
        • Ginsburg OM
        • et al.
        Cervical and breast cancer screening after CARES: a community program for immigrant and marginalized women.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017; 52: 589-597https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.023
        • Earp JA
        • Eng E
        • O'Malley MS
        • et al.
        Increasing use of mammography among older, rural African American women: results from a community trial.
        Am J Public Health. 2002; 92: 646-654https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.4.646
        • Elder JP
        • Haughton J
        • Perez LG
        • et al.
        Promoting cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas: Fe en Acción/faith in action.
        Health Educ Res. 2017; 32: 163-173https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyx033
        • Elkin EB
        • Shapiro E
        • Snow JG
        • Zauber AG
        • Krauskopf MS.
        The economic impact of a patient navigator program to increase screening colonoscopy.
        Cancer. 2012; 118: 5982-5988https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27595
        • Fang CY
        • Ma GX
        • Handorf EA
        • et al.
        Addressing multilevel barriers to cervical cancer screening in Korean American women: a randomized trial of a community-based intervention.
        Cancer. 2017; 123: 1018-1026https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30391
        • Fernández ME
        • Gonzales A
        • Tortolero-Luna G
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of Cultivando la Salud: a breast and cervical cancer screening promotion program for low-income Hispanic women.
        Am J Public Health. 2009; 99: 936-943https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.136713
        • Fiscella K
        • Humiston S
        • Hendren S
        • et al.
        A multimodal intervention to promote mammography and colorectal cancer screening in a safety-net practice.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2011; 103: 762-768https://doi.org/10.1016/s0027-9684(15)30417-x
        • Fouad MN
        • Partridge E
        • Dignan M
        • et al.
        Targeted intervention strategies to increase and maintain mammography utilization among African American women.
        Am J Public Health. 2010; 100 ([published correction appears in Am J Public Health. 2011;101(7):1158]): 2526-2531https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.167312
        • Goelen G
        • De Clercq G
        • Hanssens S.
        A community peer-volunteer telephone reminder call to increase breast cancer-screening attendance.
        Oncol Nurs Forum. 2010; 37: E312-E317https://doi.org/10.1188/10.ONF.E312-E317
        • Han HR
        • Song Y
        • Kim M
        • et al.
        Breast and cervical cancer screening literacy among Korean American women: a community health worker-led intervention.
        Am J Public Health. 2017; 107: 159-165https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303522
        • Hatcher J
        • Schoenberg NE
        • Dignan M
        • Rayens MK.
        Promoting mammography with African-American women in the emergency department using lay health workers.
        J Natl Black Nurses Assoc. 2016; 27: 38-44
        • Haverkamp D
        • English K
        • Jacobs-Wingo J
        • Tjemsland A
        • Espey D.
        Effectiveness of interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening among American Indians and Alaska Natives.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2020; 17: E62https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.200049
        • Hirst S
        • Mitchell H
        • Medley G.
        An evaluation of a campaign to increase cervical cancer screening in rural Victoria.
        Community Health Stud. 1990; 14: 263-268https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.1990.tb00625.x
        • Hoare T
        • Thomas C
        • Biggs A
        • Booth M
        • Bradley S
        • Friedman E.
        Can the uptake of breast screening by Asian women be increased? A randomized controlled trial of a linkworker intervention.
        J Public Health Med. 1994; 16: 179-185https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubmed.a042954
        • Holt CL
        • Litaker MS
        • Scarinci IC
        • et al.
        Spiritually based intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among African Americans: screening and theory-based outcomes from a randomized trial.
        Health Educ Behav. 2013; 40: 458-468https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198112459651
        • Holt CL
        • Tagai EK
        • Santos SLZ
        • et al.
        Web-based versus in-person methods for training lay community health advisors to implement health promotion workshops: participant outcomes from a cluster-randomized trial.
        Transl Behav Med. 2019; 9: 573-582https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/iby065
        • Howze EH
        • Broyden RR
        • Impara JC.
        Using informal caregivers to communicate with women about mammography.
        Health Commun. 1992; 4: 227-244https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0403_5
        • Janz NK
        • Schottenfeld D
        • Doerr KM
        • et al.
        A two-step intervention of increase mammography among women aged 65 and older.
        Am J Public Health. 1997; 87: 1683-1686https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.87.10.1683
        • Jean-Jacques M
        • Kaleba EO
        • Gatta JL
        • Gracia G
        • Ryan ER
        • Choucair BN
        Program to improve colorectal cancer screening in a low-income, racially diverse population: a randomized controlled trial.
        Ann Fam Med. 2012; 10: 412-417https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1381
        • Jo AM
        • Nguyen TT
        • Stewart S
        • et al.
        Lay health educators and print materials for the promotion of colorectal cancer screening among Korean Americans: a randomized comparative effectiveness study.
        Cancer. 2017; 123: 2705-2715https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30568
        • Katz ML
        • Tatum C
        • Dickinson SL
        • et al.
        Improving colorectal cancer screening by using community volunteers: results of the Carolinas cancer education and screening (CARES) project.
        Cancer. 2007; 110: 1602-1610https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22930
        • Lam TK
        • McPhee SJ
        • Mock J
        • et al.
        Encouraging Vietnamese-American women to obtain Pap tests through lay health worker outreach and media education.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2003; 18: 516-524https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.21043.x
        • Leone LA
        • Allicock M
        • Pignone MP
        • et al.
        Cluster randomized trial of a church-based peer counselor and tailored newsletter intervention to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity among older African Americans.
        Health Educ Behav. 2016; 43: 568-576https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198115611877
        • Liu G
        • Perkins A.
        Using a lay cancer screening navigator to increase colorectal cancer screening rates.
        J Am Board Fam Med. 2015; 28: 280-282https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2015.02.140209
        • Livaudais JC
        • Coronado GD
        • Espinoza N
        • Islas I
        • Ibarra G
        • Thompson B.
        Educating Hispanic women about breast cancer prevention: evaluation of a home-based promotora-led intervention.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010; 19: 2049-2056https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2009.1733
        • Luque JS
        • Tarasenko YN
        • Reyes-Garcia C
        • et al.
        Salud es Vida: a cervical cancer screening intervention for rural Latina immigrant women.
        J Cancer Educ. 2017; 32: 690-699https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-015-0978-x
        • Ma GX
        • Fang C
        • Tan Y
        • Feng Z
        • Ge S
        • Nguyen C.
        Increasing cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese Americans: a community-based intervention trial.
        J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2015; 26 (2): 36-52https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2015.0064
      16. GX Ma, M Lee, M Beeber, et al., Community-clinical linkage intervention to improve colorectal cancer screening among underserved Korean Americans, Cancer Health Disparities, 3, 2019, e1–e15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746426/pdf/nihms-1035480.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2022

        • Marshall JK
        • Mbah OM
        • Ford JG
        • et al.
        Effect of patient navigation on breast cancer screening among African American Medicare beneficiaries: a randomized controlled trial.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2016; 31: 68-76https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-015-3484-2
        • Mishra SI
        • Bastani R
        • Crespi CM
        • Chang LC
        • Luce PH
        • Baquet CR.
        Results of a randomized trial to increase mammogram usage among Samoan women.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16: 2594-2604https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0148
        • Mock J
        • McPhee SJ
        • Nguyen T
        • et al.
        Effective lay health worker outreach and media-based education for promoting cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.
        Am J Public Health. 2007; 97: 1693-1700https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.086470
        • Navarro AM
        • Senn KL
        • McNicholas LJ
        • Kaplan RM
        • Roppé B
        • Campo MC.
        Por La Vida model intervention enhances use of cancer screening tests among Latinas.
        Am J Prev Med. 1998; 15: 32-41https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00023-3
        • Nguyen BH
        • Stewart SL
        • Nguyen TT
        • Bui-Tong N
        • McPhee SJ.
        Effectiveness of lay health worker outreach in reducing disparities in colorectal cancer screening in Vietnamese Americans.
        Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: 2083-2089https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302713
        • Nguyen TT
        • Le G
        • Nguyen T
        • et al.
        Breast cancer screening among Vietnamese Americans: a randomized controlled trial of lay health worker outreach.
        Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37 ([published correction appears in Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(4):464]): 306-313https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.06.009
        • Nguyen TT
        • McPhee SJ
        • Gildengorin G
        • et al.
        Papanicolaou testing among Vietnamese Americans: results of a multifaceted intervention.
        Am J Prev Med. 2006; 31: 1-9https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2006.03.005
        • Nguyen TT
        • Tsoh JY
        • Woo K
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer screening and Chinese Americans: efficacy of lay health worker outreach and print materials.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017; 52: e67-e76https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.003
        • Nuño T
        • Martinez ME
        • Harris R
        • García F.
        A promotora-administered group education intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screening in a rural community along the U.S.-Mexico border: a randomized controlled trial.
        Cancer Causes Control. 2011; 22: 367-374https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-010-9705-4
        • O'Brien MJ
        • Halbert CH
        • Bixby R
        • Pimentel S
        • Shea JA.
        Community health worker intervention to decrease cervical cancer disparities in Hispanic women.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2010; 25: 1186-1192https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1434-6
        • Paskett E
        • Tatum C
        • Rushing J
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of an intervention to improve mammography utilization among a triracial rural population of women.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 1226-1237https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djj333
        • Paskett ED
        • McLaughlin JM
        • Lehman AM
        • Katz ML
        • Tatum CM
        • Oliveri JM.
        Evaluating the efficacy of lay health advisors for increasing risk-appropriate Pap test screening: a randomized controlled trial among Ohio Appalachian women.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20: 835-843https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0880
        • Paskett ED
        • Tatum CM
        • Jr D'Agostino R
        • et al.
        Community-based interventions to improve breast and cervical cancer screening: results of the Forsyth County Cancer Screening (FoCaS) Project.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999; 8: 453-459
        • Percac-Lima S
        • Ashburner JM
        • Bond B
        • Oo SA
        • Atlas SJ.
        Decreasing disparities in breast cancer screening in refugee women using culturally tailored patient navigation.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2013; 28: 1463-1468https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-013-2491-4
        • Percac-Lima S
        • Milosavljevic B
        • Oo SA
        • Marable D
        • Bond B.
        Patient navigation to improve breast cancer screening in Bosnian refugees and immigrants.
        J Immigr Minor Health. 2012; 14: 727-730https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-011-9539-5
        • Russell KM
        • Champion VL
        • Monahan PO
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of a lay health advisor and computer intervention to increase mammography screening in African American women.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19: 201-210https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0569
        • Sadler GR
        • Ko CM
        • Wu P
        • Alisangco J
        • Castañeda SF
        • Kelly C.
        A cluster randomized controlled trial to increase breast cancer screening among African American women: the black cosmetologists promoting health program.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2011; 103: 735-745https://doi.org/10.1016/s0027-9684(15)30413-2
      17. A Sauaia, SJ Min, D Lack, et al., Church-based breast cancer screening education: impact of two approaches on Latinas enrolled in public and private health insurance plans, Prev Chronic Dis, 4(4), 2007, A99. https://chwcentral.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Sauaia-Church-based-Breast-cancer-screening-ed.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2022

        • Savas LS
        • Atkinson JS
        • Figueroa-Solis E
        • et al.
        A lay health worker intervention to improve breast and cervical cancer screening among Latinas in El Paso, Texas: a randomized control trial.
        Prev Med. 2021; 145106446https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106446
        • Studts CR
        • Tarasenko YN
        • Schoenberg NE
        • Shelton BJ
        • Hatcher-Keller J
        • Dignan MB.
        A community-based randomized trial of a faith-placed intervention to reduce cervical cancer burden in Appalachia.
        Prev Med. 2012; 54: 408-414https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.03.019
        • Sung JF
        • Blumenthal DS
        • Coates RJ
        • Williams JE
        • Alema-Mensah E
        • Liff JM.
        Effect of a cancer screening intervention conducted by lay health workers among inner-city women.
        Am J Prev Med. 1997; 13: 51-57https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(18)30225-3
        • Tanjasiri SP
        • Mouttapa M
        • Sablan-Santos L
        • et al.
        Design and outcomes of a community trial to increase pap testing in Pacific Islander women.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019; 28: 1435-1442https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-1306
        • Taylor VM
        • Hislop TG
        • Jackson JC
        • et al.
        A randomized controlled trial of interventions to promote cervical cancer screening among Chinese women in North America.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 670-677https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.9.670
        • Taylor VM
        • Jackson JC
        • Yasui Y
        • et al.
        Evaluation of an outreach intervention to promote cervical cancer screening among Cambodian American women.
        Cancer Detect Prev. 2002; 26: 320-327https://doi.org/10.1016/s0361-090x(02)00055-7
        • Taylor VM
        • Jackson JC
        • Yasui Y
        • et al.
        Evaluation of a cervical cancer control intervention using lay health workers for Vietnamese American women.
        Am J Public Health. 2010; 100: 1924-1929https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.190348
        • Thompson B
        • Carosso EA
        • Jhingan E
        • et al.
        Results of a randomized controlled trial to increase cervical cancer screening among rural Latinas.
        Cancer. 2017; 123: 666-674https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30399
        • Tong EK
        • Nguyen TT
        • Lo P
        • et al.
        Lay health educators increase colorectal cancer screening among Hmong Americans: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
        Cancer. 2017; 123: 98-106https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30265
        • Walsh JM
        • Salazar R
        • Nguyen TT
        • et al.
        Healthy colon, healthy life: a novel colorectal cancer screening intervention.
        Am J Prev Med. 2010; 39: 1-14https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.02.020
        • Wang X
        • Fang C
        • Tan Y
        • Liu A
        • Ma GX.
        Evidence-based intervention to reduce access barriers to cervical cancer screening among underserved Chinese American women.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010; 19: 463-469https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2009.1422
        • Warner EL
        • Martel L
        • Ou JY
        • et al.
        A workplace-based intervention to improve awareness, knowledge, and utilization of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings among Latino service and manual labor employees in Utah.
        J Community Health. 2019; 44: 256-264https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-018-0581-2
        • Weinrich SP
        • Weinrich MC
        • Stromborg MF
        • Boyd MD
        • Weiss HL.
        Using elderly educators to increase colorectal cancer screening.
        Gerontologist. 1993; 33: 491-496https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/33.4.491
        • White K
        • Garces IC
        • Bandura L
        • McGuire AA
        • Scarinci IC.
        Design and evaluation of a theory-based, culturally relevant outreach model for breast and cervical cancer screening for Latina immigrants.
        Ethn Dis. 2012; 22: 274-280
        • Wong CL
        • Choi KC
        • Chen J
        • Law BMH
        • Chan DNS
        • So WKW.
        A community health worker-led multicomponent program to promote cervical cancer screening in South Asian women: a cluster RCT.
        Am J Prev Med. 2021; 61: 136-145https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.01.031
        • Community Preventive Services Task Force
        Cancer screening: interventions engaging community health workers breast cancer.
        Community Preventive Services Task Force, Atlanta, GA2019 (Published. Accessed October 12, 2022)
        • Community Preventive Services Task Force
        Cancer screening: interventions engaging community health workers cervical cancer.
        Community Preventive Services Task Force, Atlanta, GA2019 (PublishedAccessed October 12, 2022)
        • Community Preventive Services Task Force
        Cancer screening: interventions engaging community health workers. colorectal cancer.
        Community Preventive Services Task Force, Atlanta, GA2019 (PublishedAccessed October 12, 2022)
        • Rosenthal EL
        • Menking P
        • St. John J
        The community health worker core consensus project (C3) Project findings: roles & competencies. 12. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, TX2022 (Published 2020. Accessed October)
        • Stang A
        • Jöckel KH.
        The impact of cancer screening on all-cause mortality.
        Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2018; 115: 481-486https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2018.0481
        • Seven M
        • Akyüz A
        • Robertson LB.
        Interventional education methods for increasing women's participation in breast cancer screening program.
        J Cancer Educ. 2015; 30: 244-252https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-014-0709-8
        • Bandura A.
        Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
        Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ1986
        • Calderón-Mora J
        • Byrd TL
        • Alomari A
        • et al.
        Group versus individual culturally tailored and theory-based education to promote cervical cancer screening among the underserved Hispanics: a cluster randomized trial.
        Am J Health Promot. 2020; 34: 15-24https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117119871004
        • Larkey LK
        • Herman PM
        • Roe DJ
        • et al.
        A cancer screening intervention for underserved Latina women by lay educators.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012; 21: 557-566https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2011.3087
        • Spalluto LB
        • Audet CM
        • Murry VM
        • et al.
        Group versus individual educational sessions with a promotora and Hispanic/Latina women's satisfaction with care in the screening mammography setting: a randomized controlled trial.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019; 213: 1029-1036https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21516
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        State law face sheet: a summary of state community health worker laws.
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA2016 (Published June 30Accessed October 12, 2022)
        • Londonwide LMCs
        Keep it simple: social prescribing link workers /v1 May 2019.
        Londonwide LMCs, London, United Kingdom2021 (Published NovemberAccessed October 12, 2022)
      18. Pay guide: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and Practitioners and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services Award. Australian Government Fair Work Ombudsman.https://www.fairwork.gov.au/pay-and-wages/minimum-wages/pay-guides. Updated December 2022. Accessed December 14, 2022.

        • Goel MS
        • Wee CC
        • McCarthy EP
        • Davis RB
        • Ngo-Metzger Q
        • Phillips RS.
        Racial and ethnic disparities in cancer screening: the importance of foreign birth as a barrier to care.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2003; 18: 1028-1035https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2003.20807.x
      19. M Baier, N Calonge, G Cutter, et al., Validity of self-reported colorectal cancer screening behavior, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 9(2), 2000, 229–232. https://aacrjournals.org/cebp/article/9/2/229/180333. Accessed December 14, 2022.

        • Walker MJ
        • Chiarelli AM
        • Mirea L
        • et al.
        Accuracy of self-reported screening mammography use: examining recall among female relatives from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry.
        ISRN Oncol. 2013; 2013810573https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/810573
      20. LS Caplan, DV McQueen, JR Qualters, M Leff, C Garrett and N. Calonge, Validity of women’s self-reports of cancer screening test utilization in a managed care population, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 12(11, pt 1), 2003, 1182–1187.https://aacrjournals.org/cebp/article/12/11/1182/167683/Validity-of-Women-s-Self-Reports-of-Cancer. Accessed December 14, 2022.

        • Partin MR
        • Grill J
        • Noorbaloochi S
        • et al.
        Validation of self-reported colorectal cancer screening behavior from a mixed-mode survey of veterans.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17: 768-776https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0759
      21. Community Preventive Services Task Force. Cardiovascular disease prevention and control: interventions engaging community health workers. Atlanta, GA: Community Preventive Services Task Force.https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/heart-disease-stroke-prevention-interventions-engaging-community-health-workers.html. Published March 2015. Accessed December 14, 2022.

        • Community Preventive Services Task Force
        Diabetes prevention: interventions engaging community health workers.
        Community Preventive Services Task Force, Atlanta, GA2016 (Published AugustAccessed October 12, 2022)
        • Community Preventive Services Task Force
        Diabetes management: interventions engaging community health workers.
        Community Preventive Services Task Force, Atlanta, GA2017 (Published AprilAccessed October 12, 2022)
        • Attipoe-Dorcoo S
        • Chattopadhyay SK
        • Verughese J
        • et al.
        Engaging community health workers to increase cancer screening: a community guide systematic economic review.
        Am J Prev Med. 2021; 60: e189-e197https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.08.011