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- Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 [published correction appears in Lancet. 2017;389(10064):e1].Lancet. 2016; 388: 1775-1812https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31470-2
- Recent increases in the U.S. Maternal mortality rate: disentangling trends from measurement issues.Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 128: 447-455https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000001556
Hoyert DL. Maternal mortality rates in the United States, 2020. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/maternal-mortality/2020/E-stat-Maternal-Mortality-Rates-2022.pdf. Published 2022. Accessed January 16, 2023.
- Maternal mortality in the United States: changes in coding, publication, and data release, 2018.Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2020; 69 (Accessed January 16, 2023.): 1-18
- Trends in mortality among pregnant and recently pregnant women in the U.S., 2015–2019.JAMA. 2021; 326: 1631-1633https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.13971
- Vital signs: pregnancy-related deaths, United States, 2011–2015, and strategies for prevention, 13 states, 2013–2017.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019; 68: 423-429https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6818e1
Hoyert DL. Maternal mortality rates in the United States, 2019. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/maternal-mortality-2021/E-Stat-Maternal-Mortality-Rates-H.pdf. Published 2021. Accessed January 16, 2023.
- Racial inequities in preventable pregnancy-related deaths in Louisiana, 2011–2016 [published correction appears in Obstet Gynecol. 2020;135(3):734–735].Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 135: 276-283https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003591
- Social and structural determinants of health inequities in maternal health.J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021; 30: 230-235https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2020.8882
- Impact of state-level changes on maternal mortality: a population-based, quasi-experimental study [published correction appears in Am J Prev Med. 2020;59(2):305–307].Am J Prev Med. 2020; 58: 165-174https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.09.012
- State abortion policies and maternal death in the United States, 2015–2018.Am J Public Health. 2021; 111: 1696-1704https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306396
- Income inequality and racial disparities in pregnancy-related mortality in the U.S. [published correction appears in SSM Popul Health. 2020;12:100714].SSM Popul Health. 2019; 9100477https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100477
- Maternal mortality and public health programs: evidence from Florida.Milbank Q. 2020; 98: 150-171https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12442
- Association of state Medicaid expansion status with low birth weight and preterm birth.JAMA. 2019; 321: 1598-1609https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.3678
- Adoption of Medicaid expansion is associated with lower maternal mortality.Womens Health Issues. 2020; 30: 147-152https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2020.01.005
- The association between government healthcare spending and maternal mortality in the European Union, 1981–2010: a retrospective study.BJOG. 2015; 122: 1216-1224https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.13205
- Effectiveness of public health spending on infant mortality in Florida, 2001–2014.Soc Sci Med. 2018; 211: 31-38https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.05.044
Bradley EH, Canavan M, Rogan E, et al. Variation in health outcomes: the role of spending on social services, public health, and health care, 2000–09. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016;35(5):760–768. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0814.
- Government spending in health and nonhealth sectors associated with improvement in county health rankings.Health Aff (Millwood). 2016; 35: 2037-2043https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0708
- County health outcomes linkage to county spending on social services, building infrastructure, and law and order.SSM Popul Health. 2021; 16100930https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100930
- State and local government expenditures and infant mortality in the United States.Pediatrics. 2020; 146e20201134https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-1134
- Associations between county wealth, health and social services spending, and health outcomes.Am J Prev Med. 2017; 53: 592-598https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.05.005
- Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions.Lancet. 2017; 389: 1453-1463https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30569-X
- Structural gendered racism revealed in pandemic times: intersectional approaches to understanding race and gender health inequities in COVID-19.Gend Soc. 2021; 35: 168-179https://doi.org/10.1177/08912432211001302
- Getting hyperlocal to improve outcomes and achieve racial equity in maternal health: the U.S. maternal vulnerability index.Surgo Ventures, Washington, DC2021 (Published 2021, Accessed January 16, 2023.)https://surgoventures.org/resource-library/getting-hyperlocal-to-improve-outcomes-achieve-racial-equity-in-maternal-health-the-us-mvi
Annual survey of state and local government finances. U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/gov-finances/data/datasets.html. Accessed January 16, 2023.
- Municipality-level variation in severe maternal morbidity and association with municipal expenditures in New Jersey.JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4e2135161https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.35161
Uniform crime reports. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). https://www.fbi.gov/services/cjis/ucr. Accessed September 2021.
State partisan composition. National Conference of State Legislatures. https://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/partisan-composition.aspx. Accessed January 16, 2023.
- Status of state action on the Medicaid expansion decision.Kaiser Family Foundation, San Francisco, CA2022 (Accessed January 16, 2023.)https://www.kff.org/health-reform/state-indicator/state-activity-around-expanding-medicaid-under-the-affordable-care-act/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D
- Racial residential segregation and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Soc Sci Med. 2017; 191: 237-250https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.09.018
- Associations between local government expenditures and low birth weight incidence: evidence from national birth records.Prev Med Rep. 2019; 16100985https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100985
- Residential greenness: current perspectives on its impact on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes.Int J Womens Health. 2017; 9: 133-144https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S125358
- Residential greenness and birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.Environ Res. 2021; 193110599https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110599
- Occurrence of fatal police violence during pregnancy and hazard of preterm birth in California.Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2021; 35: 469-478https://doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12753
- Association of residence in high-police contact neighborhoods with preterm birth among black and white individuals in Minneapolis.JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4e2130290https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30290
- Gestational exposure to fatal police violence and pregnancy loss in U.S. core based statistical areas, 2013–2015.EClinicalMedicine. 2021; 36100901https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100901
- Effects of COVID-19 on federal, state, and local government budgets.Brookings Pap Econ Act. 2020; 2020: 229-278https://doi.org/10.1353/eca.2020.0028
- The fiscal policy response to the pandemic.Brookings Pap Econ Act. 2021; 2021: 89-110https://doi.org/10.1353/eca.2021.0009