Advertisement

Responses of African American Individuals Who Use Menthol Cigarettes to Potential Flavored Tobacco Bans

Published:January 07, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2022.12.005

      Introduction

      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has proposed new product standards regarding the availability of menthol cigarettes and flavored cigars in the U.S. However, it is unclear whether limiting characterizing flavors in cigarettes and cigars as proposed, or across all tobacco products, produces differential effects on the tobacco use behaviors of African American/Black individuals who use menthol cigarettes. This study assessed whether limiting characterizing flavors in combusted products only or across all tobacco products produces differential impacts on the tobacco use behaviors of African American/Black individuals who use menthol cigarettes.

      Methods

      Adult African American/Black individuals who use menthol cigarettes in the U.S. were recruited through Qualtrics (n=373) and in Richmond, VA (n=206) for an online experiment from September 2021 to August 2022. Participants reported how their tobacco use behaviors would change under 3 scenarios: maintenance of the status quo, limited flavor ban (ban characterizing flavors in cigarettes and cigars), and comprehensive flavor ban (ban characterizing flavors in all tobacco products). Seemingly unrelated regressions compared differences in expected responses to policy scenarios (p<0.05).

      Results

      Both flavor ban scenarios resulted in higher quitting intentions for cigarettes and all tobacco products than the status quo (p<0.05). The comprehensive ban resulted in greater intentions to quit all tobacco products and lower intentions to switch to certain alternative products (e.g., E-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, heated tobacco products) than the limited ban (p<0.05).

      Conclusions

      African American/Black individuals who use menthol cigarettes appear more likely to quit smoking if characterizing flavors in combusted products (e.g., menthol cigarettes) are banned, regardless of if characterizing flavors are available in noncombusted alternative tobacco products.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
        FDA commits to evidence-based actions aimed at saving lives and preventing future generations of smokers.
        U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Springs, MD2021 (Published April 29. Accessed August 18, 2022)
        • Wickham RJ.
        The biological impact of menthol on tobacco dependence.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2020; 22: 1676-1684https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz239
        • Ahijevych K
        • Garrett BE.
        The role of menthol in cigarettes as a reinforcer of smoking behavior.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2010; 12: S110-S116https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntq203
        • Fagan P
        • Moolchan ET
        • Jr Hart A
        • et al.
        Nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers with similar consumptive patterns.
        Addiction. 2010; 105: 55-74https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03190.x
        • Weinberger AH
        • Giovenco DP
        • Zhu J
        • Lee J
        • Kashan RS
        • Goodwin RD.
        Racial/ethnic differences in daily, nondaily, and menthol cigarette use and smoking quit ratios in the United States: 2002 to 2016.
        Prev Med. 2019; 125: 32-39https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.04.009
        • Levy DT
        • Meza R
        • Yuan Z
        • et al.
        Public health impact of a U.S. ban on menthol in cigarettes and cigars: a simulation study.
        Tob Control. 2021; (In press. Online September 2)https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2021-056604
        • Williamson TJ
        • Riley KE
        • Carter-Harris L
        • Ostroff JS.
        Changing the language of how we measure and report smoking status: implications for reducing stigma, restoring dignity, and improving the precision of scientific communication.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2020; 22: 2280-2282https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa141
        • Yang Y
        • Lindblom EN
        • Ward KD
        • Salloum RG.
        How smokers of menthol cigarettes and flavored cigars might respond to FDA's proposed bans.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2022; 24: 1645-1653https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntac078
        • Pearson JL
        • Abrams DB
        • Niaura RS
        • Richardson A
        • Vallone DM.
        A ban on menthol cigarettes: impact on public opinion and smokers’ intention to quit.
        Am J Public Health. 2012; 102: e107-e114https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300804
        • Wackowski OA
        • Delnevo CD
        • Pearson JL.
        Switching to e-cigarettes in the event of a menthol cigarette ban.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2015; 17: 1286-1287https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv021
        • Zellner A.
        An efficient method of estimating seemingly unrelated regressions and tests for aggregation bias.
        J Am Stat Assoc. 1962; 57: 348-368https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1962.10480664
        • Shadel WG
        • Edelen MO
        • Tucker JS
        • Stucky BD
        • Hansen M
        • Cai L.
        Development of the PROMIS nicotine dependence item banks.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2014; 16: S190-S201https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntu032
        • Gardiner PS.
        The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2004; 6: S55-S65https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200310001649478
        • Levy DT
        • Cadham CJ
        • Sanchez-Romero LM
        • et al.
        An expert elicitation on the effects of a ban on menthol cigarettes and cigars in the United States.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2021; 23: 1911-1920https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntab121
        • Issabakhsh M
        • Meza R
        • Li Y
        • Yuan Z
        • Sanchez-Romero LM
        • Levy DT.
        Public health impact of a US menthol cigarette ban on the non-Hispanic black population: a simulation study.
        Tob Control. 2022; (In press. Online June 14)https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2022-057298
        • Chaiton MO
        • Nicolau I
        • Schwartz R
        • et al.
        Ban on menthol-flavoured tobacco products predicts cigarette cessation at 1 year: a population cohort study.
        Tob Control. 2020; 29: 341-347https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054841