Advertisement

Changes in Household Challenges and Subsequent Child Welfare Report

Published:January 21, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2022.12.009

      Introduction

      Preventing child maltreatment and reducing adverse childhood experiences is critical for improving adult health. To inform prevention efforts, it is necessary to move beyond static risk models and instead model the dynamic changes in household challenges during the prebirth and early childhood periods. This study examined the effect of changes in the number of household challenges from prebirth (12 months before birth of a child) to early childhood (3 years after birth) period on the risk of a child maltreatment report by age 3 years.

      Methods

      This retrospective cohort study linked data from the Alaska 2009–2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, its 3-year follow-up survey, and administrative records through 2019. Participants were 1,699 birthing parents. Latent class analyses identified prebirth and early childhood low- and high-challenge respondent groups on the basis of the level of reported household challenges. The authors then modeled the relationships between group transition membership and the risk of maltreatment using latent transition analysis. Analyses were conducted in 2021.

      Results

      Households transitioning from a high-challenge-prebirth status to a low-challenge-early-childhood status had a lower predicted risk for child services report than households remaining in the high-challenges group. Transitioning from low- to high-challenges status predicted the highest risk for child services report than that of all other groups.

      Conclusions

      To reduce the risk of child maltreatment and subsequent adverse childhood experiences, healthcare providers should screen parents for the presence of household challenges during both pregnancy and early childhood and connect patients to resources targeted at reducing those challenges and providing continuous familial support.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • Felitti VJ
        • Anda RF
        • Nordenberg D
        • et al.
        Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study.
        Am J Prev Med. 1998; 14: 245-258https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8
        • Petruccelli K
        • Davis J
        • Berman T.
        Adverse childhood experiences and associated health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Child Abuse Negl. 2019; 97104127https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104127
        • Anda RF
        • Croft JB
        • Felitti VJ
        • et al.
        Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood.
        JAMA. 1999; 282: 1652-1658https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.17.1652
        • Bethell CD
        • Carle A
        • Hudziak J
        • et al.
        Methods to assess adverse childhood experiences of children and families: toward approaches to promote child well-being in policy and practice.
        Acad Pediatr. 2017; 17: S51-S69https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2017.04.161
        • Finkelhor D
        • Shattuck A
        • Turner H
        • Hamby S.
        Improving the adverse childhood experiences study scale.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2013; 167: 70-75https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.420
        • Aber JL
        • Bennett NG
        • Conley DC
        • Li J.
        The effects of poverty on child health and development.
        Annu Rev Public Health. 1997; 18: 463-483https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.18.1.463
        • Maggi S
        • Irwin LJ
        • Siddiqi A
        • Hertzman C.
        The social determinants of early child development: an overview.
        J Paediatr Child Health. 2010; 46: 627-635https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1754.2010.01817.x
        • Rittman D
        • Parrish J
        • Lanier P.
        Prebirth household challenges to predict adverse childhood experiences score by age 3.
        Pediatrics. 2020; 146e20201303https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-1303
        • MacLeod J
        • Nelson G.
        Programs for the promotion of family wellness and the prevention of child maltreatment: a meta-analytic review.
        Child Abuse Negl. 2000; 24: 1127-1149https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(00)00178-2
        • Marie-Mitchell A
        • Kostolansky R
        A systematic review of trials to improve child outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences.
        Am J Prev Med. 2019; 56: 756-764https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.11.030
        • Olds DL
        • Kitzman H
        • Cole R
        • Robinson J.
        Theoretical foundations of a program of home visitation for pregnant women and parents of young children.
        J Community Psychol. 1998; 25: 9-25https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199701)25:1<9::AID-JCOP2>3.0.CO;2-V
        • Olds DL
        • Henderson Jr, CR
        • Chamberlin R
        • Tatelbaum R.
        Preventing child abuse and neglect: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation.
        Pediatrics. 1986; 78: 65-78https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.78.1.65
        • Olds DL
        • Eckenrode J
        • Henderson Jr, CR
        • et al.
        Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect. Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial.
        JAMA. 1997; 278: 637-643https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03550080047038
        • Eckenrode J
        • Ganzel B
        • Henderson Jr, CR
        • et al.
        Preventing child abuse and neglect with a program of nurse home visitation: the limiting effects of domestic violence.
        JAMA. 2000; 284: 1385-1391https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.11.1385
        • MacKenzie MJ
        • Kotch JB
        • Lee LC.
        Toward a cumulative ecological risk model for the etiology of child maltreatment.
        Child Youth Serv Rev. 2011; 33: 1638-1647https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.018
      1. Alaska Department of Health, Division of Public Health. Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage Project (ALCANLink). https://health.alaska.gov/dph/wcfh/Pages/mchepi/ALCANLink/default.aspx. Updated 2022. Accessed October 21, 2022.

        • Parrish JW
        • Shanahan ME
        • Schnitzer PG
        • Lanier P
        • Daniels JL
        • Marshall SW.
        Quantifying sources of bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child abuse and neglect: measuring impact of outcome specification, linkage error, and partial cohort follow-up.
        Inj Epidemiol. 2017; 4: 23https://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-017-0119-6
        • Parrish JW
        • Young MB
        • Perham-Hester KA
        • Gessner BD.
        Identifying risk factors for child maltreatment in Alaska: a population-based approach.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 40: 666-673https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.02.022
      2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PRAMS methodology, 2022 https://www.cdc.gov/prams/methodology.htm, Updated April 22, 2022. Accessed October 17, 2022.

        • Shulman HB
        • D'Angelo DV
        • Harrison L
        • Smith RA
        • Warner L
        The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS): overview of design and methodology.
        Am J Public Health. 2018; 108: 1305-1313https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304563
        • Maguire-Jack K
        • Kim H.
        Rural differences in child maltreatment reports, reporters, and service responses.
        Child Youth Serv Rev. 2021; 120105792https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105792
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Violence prevention: adverse childhood experiences, risk and protective factors.
        2021 (Updated January 5, 2022. Accessed May 4, 2022.)
        • Rittman D
        • Baldwin-Johnson C
        • Parrish J.
        Dispelling myths about child sexual abuse among Indigenous people.
        Alaska Department of Health, Division of Public Health, Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage Project (ALCANLink), Anchorage, AK2019 (Published December 2019. Accessed October 26, 2022.)
        • Drake B
        • Jonson-Reid M
        • Way I
        • Chung S
        Substantiation and recidivism.
        Child Maltreat. 2003; 8: 248-260https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559503258930
        • Leiter J
        • Myers KA
        • Zingraff MT.
        Substantiated and unsubstantiated cases of child maltreatment: do their consequences differ?.
        Soc Work Res. 1994; 18: 67-82https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/18.2.67
        • Hussey JM
        • Marshall JM
        • English DJ
        • et al.
        Defining maltreatment according to substantiation: distinction without a difference?.
        Child Abuse Negl. 2005; 29: 479-492https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.12.005
        • Lo Y
        • Mendell NR
        • Rubin DB.
        Testing the number of components in a normal mixture.
        Biometrika. 2001; 88: 767-778https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/88.3.767
        • Wang J
        • Wang X.
        Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England2012https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118356258
        • Nylund KL
        • Asparouhov T
        • Muthén BO.
        Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: a Monte Carlo simulation study.
        Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J. 2007; 14: 535-569https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701575396
        • Lanza ST
        • Tan X
        • Bray BC.
        Latent class analysis with distal outcomes: a flexible model-based approach.
        Struct Equ Modeling. 2013; 20: 1-26https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2013.742377
        • Vermunt JK.
        Latent class modeling with covariates: two improved three-step approaches.
        Polit Anal. 2010; 18: 450-469https://doi.org/10.1093/pan/mpq025
        • Yang CC.
        Evaluating latent class analysis models in qualitative phenotype identification.
        Comput Stat Data Anal. 2006; 50: 1090-1104https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csda.2004.11.004
        • Lumley T.
        Survey: analysis of complex survey samples.
        R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria2020 (R package version 4.0. Published Accessed May 1, 2023.)
        • Ellis GF
        • Srvyr SB.
        Dplyr’-like syntax for summary statistics of survey data.
        R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria2021 (R package version 1.0.1. Published Accessed May 1, 2023.)
        • Haddon Jr., W
        On the escape of tigers: an ecologic note.
        Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1970; 60: 2229-2234https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.60.12.2229-b
        • Haddon Jr., W
        Options for the prevention of motor vehicle crash injury.
        Isr J Med Sci. 1980; 16: 45-65
        • Runyan CW.
        Using the Haddon matrix: introducing the third dimension.
        Inj Prev. 1998; 4: 302-307https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.4.4.302
        • Scott D
        • Lonne B
        • Higgins D.
        Public health models for preventing child maltreatment: applications from the field of injury prevention.
        Trauma Violence Abuse. 2016; 17: 408-419https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838016658877
        • Condon EM
        • Holland ML
        • Slade A
        • Redeker NS
        • Mayes LC
        • Sadler LS.
        Maternal adverse childhood experiences, family strengths, and chronic stress in children.
        Nurs Res. 2019; 68: 189-199https://doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0000000000000349
        • Cooke JE
        • Racine N
        • Plamondon A
        • Tough S
        • Madigan S.
        Maternal adverse childhood experiences, attachment style, and mental health: pathways of transmission to child behavior problems.
        Child Abuse Negl. 2019; 93: 27-37https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.04.011
        • Sun J
        • Patel F
        • Rose-Jacobs R
        • Frank DA
        • Black MM
        • Chilton M.
        Mothers’ adverse childhood experiences and their young children's development.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017; 53: 882-891https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.015
        • Plant DT
        • Pawlby S
        • Pariante CM
        • Jones FW.
        When one childhood meets another – maternal childhood trauma and offspring child psychopathology: a systematic review.
        Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018; 23: 483-500https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104517742186
        • Schickedanz A
        • Escarce JJ
        • Halfon N
        • Sastry N
        • Chung PJ.
        Intergenerational associations between parents’ and children's adverse childhood experience scores.
        Children (Basel). 2021; 8: 747https://doi.org/10.3390/children8090747
        • Schickedanz A
        • Halfon N
        • Sastry N
        • Chung PJ.
        Parents’ adverse childhood experiences and their children's behavioral health problems.
        Pediatrics. 2018; 142e20180023https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0023
        • Buss C
        • Entringer S
        • Moog NK
        • et al.
        Intergenerational transmission of maternal childhood maltreatment exposure: implications for fetal brain development.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017; 56: 373-382https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.03.001
        • Madigan S
        • Cyr C
        • Eirich R
        • et al.
        Testing the cycle of maltreatment hypothesis: meta-analytic evidence of the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.
        Dev Psychopathol. 2019; 31: 23-51https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418001700
        • Amaya-Jackson L
        • Absher LE
        • Gerrity ET
        • Layne CM
        • Halladay Goldman J
        Beyond the ACE score: perspectives from the NCTSN on child trauma and adversity screening and impact.
        National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, Durham, NC2021 (Published 2021. Accessed May 15, 2022.)
        • Baldwin JR
        • Caspi A
        • Meehan AJ
        • et al.
        Population vs individual prediction of poor health from results of adverse childhood experiences screening.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2021; 175: 385-393https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.5602
        • Briggs EC
        • Amaya-Jackson L
        • Putnam KT
        • Putnam FW.
        All adverse childhood experiences are not equal: the contribution of synergy to adverse childhood experience scores.
        Am Psychol. 2021; 76: 243-252https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000768
        • Putnam KT
        • Harris WW
        • Putnam FW.
        Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.
        J Trauma Stress. 2013; 26: 435-442https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21833
        • Putnam FW
        • Amaya-Jackson L
        • Putnam KT
        • Briggs EC.
        Synergistic adversities and behavioral problems in traumatized children and adolescents.
        Child Abuse Negl. 2020; 106104492https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104492
        • Watkeys OJ
        • Dean K
        • Laurens KR
        • Harris F
        • Carr VJ
        • Green MJ.
        Familial clustering of birth risk for adverse childhood outcomes.
        J Perinatol. 2022; 42: 603-610https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-01264-7