Research Article|Articles in Press

Cigarette Coupon Receipt and Smoking Relapse by Duration of Smoking Abstinence


      It is unknown whether and to what extent the duration of smoking abstinence may modify the association between receiving cigarette coupons and smoking relapse in the U.S. This study aims to fill this gap.


      Data were from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study Wave 4 (December 2016–January 2018, baseline) and Wave 5 (December 2018–November 2019, follow-up) surveys. Analysis was conducted in May 2022. The study sample was participants who formerly smoked cigarettes at baseline (N=5,186). The exposure was past 12-month receipt of cigarette coupons (yes/no) at baseline, and the outcome was cigarette smoking relapse (yes/no) at follow-up. A potential modifier was the duration of smoking abstinence (within/>1 year) at baseline. Baseline single-wave weights were applied, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted association. Interaction between cigarette coupon receipt and duration of smoking abstinence was examined to explore potential modification effects.


      Participants who received cigarette coupons at baseline were more likely to relapse at follow-up (AOR=1.63, 95% CI=1.15, 2.32). This association was significantly stronger among participants who quit within 1 year than among participants who quit >1 year at baseline (AOR for the interaction term=2.77, 95% CI=1.22, 6.25). Subgroup analysis shows that receipt of cigarette coupons was significantly associated with smoking relapse among participants who quit within 1 year (AOR=2.10, 95% CI=1.39, 3.17), and this association was not statistically significant among participants who quit >1 year (AOR=0.76, 95% CI=0.36, 1.63).


      Policies restricting cigarette coupons may help adults who recently quit sustain abstinence.
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