Main outcome measures
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National diabetes statistics report 2020. Estimates Diabetes Burden United States, 2020, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Atlanta, GA.https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf. Accessed January 11, 2023.
- A1C level and future risk of diabetes: a systematic review.Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 1665-1673https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-1939
- Association between prediabetes and risk of all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease: updated meta-analysis.BMJ. 2020; 370: m2297https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2297
- Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults.N Engl J Med. 2010; 362: 800-811https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0908359
- Prevalence of diabetes by race and ethnicity in the United States, 2011–2016.JAMA. 2019; 322: 2389-2398https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.19365
Percentage of adults in the U.S. with diabetes from 2017 to March 2020, by family income relative to federal poverty level, Statista, Release date June 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/790678/diabetes-prevalence-us-by-income/. Accessed February 28, 2023.
- Social determinants of health and diabetes: a scientific review.Diabetes Care. 2020; 44: 258-279https://doi.org/10.2337/dci20-0053
Hispanic or Latino Americans and type 2 diabetes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/library/features/hispanic-diabetes.html. Updated April 4, 2022. Accessed May 16, 2022.
- Disparities in obesity rates: analysis by ZIP code area.Soc Sci Med. 2007; 65: 2458-2463https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.07.001
- A population perspective on diabetes prevention: whom should we target for preventing weight gain?.Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 1999-2004https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.7.1999
- 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.Lancet. 2009; 374 ([published correction appears in Lancet. 2009;374(9707):2054]): 1677-1686https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61457-4
- Effects on cardiovascular risk factors of weight losses limited to 5–10.Transl Behav Med. 2016; 6: 339-346https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-015-0353-9
- Long-term sustainability of diabetes prevention approaches: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.JAMA Intern Med. 2017; 177: 1808-1817https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.6040
- Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a perpetual inspiration for the scientific world. A review.Nutrients. 2021; 13: 1307https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041307
- The effect of Mediterranean diet on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 10 prospective studies and 136,846 participants.Metabolism. 2014; 63: 903-911https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2014.04.010
Ely EK, Gruss SM, Luman ET, et al. A national effort to prevent type 2 diabetes: participant-level evaluation of CDC's national diabetes prevention program. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(10):1331–1341. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-2099.
- Diabetes prevention in the real world: effectiveness of pragmatic lifestyle interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and of the impact of adherence to guideline recommendations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Diabetes Care. 2014; 37 ([published correction appears in Diabetes Care. 2014;37(6):1775–1776]): 922-933https://doi.org/10.2337/dc13-2195
- Diabetes prevention in U.S. Hispanic adults: a systematic review of culturally tailored interventions.Am J Prev Med. 2017; 52: 519-529https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.028
- Retention among participants in the national diabetes prevention program lifestyle change program, 2012–2017.Diabetes Care. 2020; 43: 2042-2049https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-2366
- A randomized comparative effectiveness trial for preventing type 2 diabetes.Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: 2328-2334https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302641
- One-year results of a community-based translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program: Healthy-Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes (HELP PD) Project.Diabetes Care. 2011; 34 ([published correction appears in Diabetes Care. 2012;35(2):455]): 1451-1457https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-2115
- Effective translation of an intensive lifestyle intervention for Hispanic women with prediabetes in a Community Health Center setting.Diabetes Care. 2016; 39: 525-531https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-1899
- Community-based translation of the diabetes prevention program's lifestyle intervention in an underserved Latino population.Diabetes Educ. 2011; 37: 564-572https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721711411107
- Translation of the diabetes prevention program's lifestyle intervention: role of community health workers.Curr Diab Rep. 2012; 12: 127-137https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-012-0254-y
- Preventing type 2 diabetes in communities across the U.S.: the National Diabetes Prevention Program.Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44 (suppl 4): S346-S351https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.12.009
- Reach and use of diabetes prevention services in the United States, 2016–2017.JAMA Netw Open. 2019; 2e193160https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3160
- Cardiometabolic risk factor changes observed in diabetes prevention programs in U.S. settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.PLoS Med. 2016; 13e1002095https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002095
- A mobile phone-based program to promote healthy behaviors among adults with prediabetes who declined participation in free diabetes prevention programs: mixed-methods pilot randomized controlled trial.JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019; 7: e11267https://doi.org/10.2196/11267
- Mixed methods study of engagement in behaviors to prevent type 2 diabetes among employees with pre-diabetes.BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016; 4e000212https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000212
- Peer support of complex health behaviors in prevention and disease management with special reference to diabetes: systematic reviews.Clin Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017; 3: 4https://doi.org/10.1186/s40842-017-0042-3
- How to achieve better effect of peer support among adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.Patient Educ Couns. 2016; 99: 186-197https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.09.006
Tang TS, Funnell M, Sinco B, et al. Comparative effectiveness of peer leaders and community health workers in diabetes self-management support: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(6):1525–1534. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc13-2161.
- Peer-Led, Empowerment-based Approach to Self-management Efforts in Diabetes (PLEASED): a randomized controlled trial in an African American community.Ann Fam Med. 2015; 13: S27-S35https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1819
- Peer mentoring and financial incentives to improve glucose control in African American veterans: a randomized trial.Ann Intern Med. 2012; 156: 416-424https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-156-6-201203200-00004
- Impact of peer health coaching on glycemic control in low-income patients with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.Ann Fam Med. 2013; 11: 137-144https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1443
- Effectiveness of technologically enhanced peer support in improving glycemic management among predominantly African American, low-income adults with diabetes.Diabetes Educ. 2019; 45: 260-271https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721719844547
- Diabetes control with reciprocal peer support versus nurse care management: a randomized trial.Ann Intern Med. 2010; 153: 507-515https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-153-8-201010190-00007
- Outcomes at 18 months from a community health worker and peer leader diabetes self-management program for Latino adults.Diabetes Care. 2018; 41: 1414-1422https://doi.org/10.2337/dc17-0978
- Study protocol: using peer support to aid in prevention and treatment in prediabetes (UPSTART).Contemp Clin Trials. 2020; 95106048https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2020.106048
- CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials.Int J Surg. 2012; 10: 28-55https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2011.10.001
- Goal-setting for behavior change in primary care: an exploration and status report.Patient Educ Couns. 2009; 76: 174-180https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.06.001
- Action planning and coping planning for long-term lifestyle change: theory and assessment.Eur J Soc Psychol. 2005; 35: 565-576https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.258
- Behavioral treatment for veterans with obesity: 24-month weight outcomes from the ASPIRE-VA small changes randomized trial.J Gen Intern Med. 2017; 32: 40-47https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-3987-0
- Do Internet-based support interventions change perceptions of social support?: an experimental trial of approaches for supporting diabetes self-management.Am J Community Psychol. 2002; 30: 637-654https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016369114780
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Questionnaire, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/questionnaires/index.htm. Updated August 24, 2022. Accessed September 15, 2022.
- A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community.Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1985; 10: 141-146
- Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997; 29: S36-S38
Williams GC, Freedman ZR, Deci EL. Supporting autonomy to motivate patients with diabetes for glucose control. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(10):1644–1651. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.21.10.1644.
- Validating the theoretical structure of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) across three different health behaviors.Health Educ Res. 2007; 22: 691-702https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyl148
- Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: a test of self-determination theory.J Pers Soc Psychol. 1996; 70: 767-779https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35220.127.116.117
- Development and testing of a short form of the patient activation measure.Health Serv Res. 2005; 40: 1918-1930https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2005.00438.x
- Development and validation of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC).Med Care. 2005; 43: 436-444https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mlr.0000160375.47920.8c
- Variation in perceived competence, glycemic control, and patient satisfaction: relationship to autonomy support from physicians.Patient Educ Couns. 2005; 57: 39-45https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2004.04.001
- Evaluating group-based interventions when control participants are ungrouped.Multivariate Behav Res. 2008; 43: 210-236https://doi.org/10.1080/00273170802034810
- Design and analysis of clinical trials with clustering effects due to treatment.Clin Trials. 2005; 2: 152-162https://doi.org/10.1191/1740774505cn076oa
S Lohr, P Schochet and E. Sanders, Partially nested randomized controlled trials in education research: a guide to design and analysis, 2014, National Center for Education Research (NCER), Department of Education; Washington, DC. https://ies.ed.gov/ncer/pubs/20142000/pdf/20142000.pdf. Accessed September 4,2018.
Lohr S, Schochet P, Mathematica Policy Research. Analyzing data from experiments in which the treatment groups have different hierarchical structures. College Station, TX: SAS Institute Inc.https://support.sas.com/resources/papers/proceedings14/1260-2014.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2022.
Blimp user's guide (version 3). Applied Missing Data. www.appliedmissingdata.com/blimp. Updated July 22, 2022. Accessed September 15, 2022.
- A randomized controlled pilot study testing three types of health coaches for obesity treatment: professional, peer, and mentor.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013; 21: 928-934https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20271
- The impact of social support on outcomes in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.Curr Diab Rep. 2012; 12: 769-781https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-012-0317-0
Heisler M. Developing and testing interventions to improve obesity-related outcomes in underserved rural communities: lessons from EMPOWER. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017;25(8):1303–1304. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21905.
- A community health worker-delivered intervention in African American women with type 2 diabetes: a 12-month randomized trial.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017; 25: 1329-1335https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21883