Advertisement

American College of Preventive Medicine practice policy

Screening for prostate cancer in American men

      Abstract

      Based on a review of the current literature and recommendations, the American College of Preventive Medicine presents a practice policy statement on screening for prostate cancer in American men.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Parker S.L.
        • Tong T.
        • Bolden S.
        • Wingo P.A.
        Cancer statistics 1997.
        CA Cancer J Clin. 1997; 47: 5-27
        • Wingo P.A.
        • Landis S.
        • Ries L.A.
        An adjustment to the 1997 estimate for new prostate cancer cases.
        CA Cancer J Clin. 1997; 47: 239-242
        • Haas G.P.
        • Sakr W.A.
        Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer.
        Cancer J Clin. 1997; 47: 273-278
        • Boyle P.
        New insights in the epidemiology and natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
        Prog Clin Biol Res. 1994; 386: 3-18
      1. Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, et al. Measurement of prostate specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. NEJM 1991;1156–61.

      2. Catalona WJ, Richie JP, Ahmann FR, et al. Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multi-center clinical trial of 6,630 men. J Urol 1994A;151:1283–90.

        • Optenberg S.A.
        • Thompson I.M.
        Economics of screening for carcinoma of the prostate.
        Urol Clin North Am. 1990; 17: 719-737
        • Vihko P.
        • Kontturi O.
        • Ervast J.
        • et al.
        Screening for carcinoma of the prostate.
        Cancer. 1985; 56: 173-177
        • Chodak G.W.
        • Keller P.
        • Schoenburg H.W.
        Assessment of screening for prostate cancer using the digital rectal examination.
        J Urol. 1989; 141: 1136-1138
        • Gann P.H.
        • Hennekens C.H.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        A prospective evaluation of plasma prostate-specific antigen for detection of prostate cancer.
        JAMA. 1995; 263: 289-294
        • Mettlin C.
        • Murphy G.P.
        • Lee F.
        • et al.
        Characteristics of prostate cancer detected in the American Cancer Society National Prostate Cancer Detection Project.
        J Urol. 1994; 152: 1737-1740
        • Scaletscky R.
        • Koch M.O.
        • Eckstein C.W.
        • et al.
        Tumor volume and stage in carcinoma of the prostate detected by elevations in prostate specific antigen.
        J Urol. 1994; 152: 129-131
        • Catalona W.J.
        • Smith D.S.
        • Ratliff T.L.
        • Basler J.W.
        Detection of organ-confined prostate cancer is increased through use of prostate-specific antigen-based screening.
        JAMA. 1993; 270: 948-954
        • Humphrey P.A.
        • Keetch C.W.
        • Smith D.S.
        • Catalona W.J.
        Prospective characterization of pathologic features of prostate carcinomas detected via serum prostate specific antigen based screening.
        J Urol. 1996; 155: 816-820
        • Cooner W.H.
        • Mosley B.R.
        • Rutherford Jr, C.L.
        • et al.
        Prostate cancer detection in a clinical urological practice by ultrasonography, digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen.
        J Urol. 1990; 143: 1146-1152
        • Bretton P.R.
        Prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination in screening for prostate cancer.
        South Med J. 1994; 87: 720-723
        • Benson M.C.
        • Whang I.S.
        • Pantuck A.
        • et al.
        Prostatic specific antigen density.
        J Urol. 1992; 1476: 815-816
        • Carter H.B.
        • Pearson J.D.
        • Metter P.J.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal evaluation of prostate-specific antigen levels in men with and without prostate disease.
        JAMA. 1992; 267: 2215-2220
        • Reissigl A.
        • Klocker H.
        • Pointner J.
        • et al.
        Usefulness of the ratio of free total prostate specific antigen in addition to total PSA levels in prostate cancer screening.
        Urology. 1996; 48: 62-66
        • Morgan T.O.
        • McLeod D.G.
        • Leifer E.S.
        • et al.
        Prospective use of free prostate-specific antigen to avoid repeat biopsies in men with elevated total prostate specific antigen.
        Urology. 1996; 48: 76-80
        • Higashihara E.
        • Nutahara K.
        • Kojima M.
        • et al.
        Significance of serum free prostate specific antigen in the screening of prostate cancer.
        J Urol. 1996; 156: 1964-1968
        • Murphy G.P.
        • Natarajan N.
        • Pontes J.E.
        • et al.
        Evaluation and comparison of two new prostate carcinoma markers.
        Cancer. 1996; 78: 809-818
        • Catalona W.J.
        • Smith D.S.
        • Ornstein D.K.
        Prostate cancer detection in men with serum PSA concentrations of 2.6–4.0 ng/mL and benign prostate examination: enhancement of specificity with serum free PSA measurements.
        JAMA. 1997; 277: 1452-1455
        • Oesterling J.E.
        • Jacobsen S.J.
        • Chute C.G.
        • et al.
        Serum prostate specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy men.
        JAMA. 1993; 270: 860-864
      3. Catalona WJ, Hudson MA, Scardino PT, et al. Selection of optimal prostate specific antigen cutoffs for early detection of prostate cancer: receiver operating characteristic curves. J Urol 1994B;152:2037–42.

        • Gerber G.S.
        • Thompson I.M.
        • Thisted R.
        • Chodak G.W.
        Disease-specific survival following routine prostate cancer screening by digital rectal examination.
        JAMA. 1993; 269: 61-64
        • Friedman G.D.
        • Hiatt R.A.
        • Quesenberry C.P.
        • Selby J.V.
        Case-control study of screening for prostatic cancer by digital rectal examinations.
        Lancet. 1991; 337: 1526-1529
        • Gilliland F.D.
        • Hunt W.C.
        • Key C.R.
        Improving survival for patients with prostate cancer diagnosed in the prostate-specific antigen era.
        Urology. 1996; 48: 67-71
        • Labrie F.
        • Candas B.
        • Cusan L.
        • et al.
        Diagnosis of advanced or noncurable prostate cancer can be practically eliminated by prostate-specific antigen.
        Urology. 1996; 47: 212-217
        • Adolfsson J.
        Deferred treatment of low grade stage T3 prostate cancer without distant metastasis.
        J Urol. 1993; 149: 326-329
        • Warner J.
        • Whitmore Jr, W.F.
        Expectant management of clinically localized prostate cancer.
        J Urol. 1994; 152: 1757-1760
        • Chodak G.W.
        • Thisted R.A.
        • Gerber G.S.
        • et al.
        Results of conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer.
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 242-248
        • Johansson J.E.
        • Holmberg L.
        • Johansson S.
        • et al.
        Fifteen-year survival in prostate cancer.
        JAMA. 1997; 277: 467-471
        • Cantor S.B.
        • Spann S.J.
        • Volk R.J.
        • et al.
        Prostate cancer screening.
        J Fam Pract. 1995; 41: 33-41
        • Krahn M.D.
        • Mahoney J.E.
        • Eckman M.H.
        • et al.
        Screening for prostate cancer.
        JAMA. 1994; 262: 773-780
        • Coley C.M.
        • Barry M.J.
        • Fleming C.
        • et al.
        Early detection of prostate cancer. Part II. Estimating the risks, benefits and costs.
        Ann Int Med. 1997; 126: 468-479
      4. Smith DS, Catalona WJ, Herschman JD. Longitudinal screening for prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen. JAMA 1996;1309–15.

        • Giatto S.
        • Bonardi R.
        • Mazzotta A.
        • et al.
        Comparing two modalities for screening for prostate cancer.
        Tumor. 1995; 81: 225-229
        • Diefenbach P.N.
        • Ganz P.A.
        • Pawlow A.J.
        • Guthrie D.
        Screening by the prostate-specific antigen test.
        J Cancer Educ. 1996; 11: 39-44
        • Plawker M.W.
        • Fleisher J.M.
        • Nitti V.W.
        • Macchia R.J.
        Primary care practitioners.
        J Urol. 1996; 155: 601-604
        • Wolf A.M.D.
        • Nasser J.F.
        • Wolf A.M.
        • Schorling J.B.
        The impact of informed consent on patient interest in prostate-specific antigen screening.
        Arch Intern Med. 1996; 156: 1333-1336
        • Kramer B.S.
        • Brown M.L.
        • Prorok P.C.
        • et al.
        Prostate cancer screening.
        Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119: 914-923
        • Flood A.B.
        • Wennberg J.E.
        • Nease R.F.
        • et al.
        The importance of patient preferences in the decision to screen for prostate cancer.
        J Gen Intern Med. 1996; 11: 342-349