Black/African American Health Disparities
- In 1993, when the article “Racism, Sexism and Social Class: Implications for Studies of Health, Disease and Well-Being” by Krieger et al.1 was originally published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (AJPM), I was working on my PhD at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health and making the case to often incredulous audiences that it was meaningful to examine the contextual impacts of neighborhood disadvantage on health even if individual-level socioeconomic data were available.
- Thirty years ago, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) held a truly pathbreaking 3-day symposium, by invitation only, that explicitly focused on racism, sexism, social class, and health.1 Titled “Preterm delivery among Black women: The symposium on psychosocial factors” (December 2–5, 1991), this meeting was organized by a visionary group of African American women researchers, led by Diane Rowley, who were based in the Pregnancy and Infant Health Branch in the Division of Reproductive Health in CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (Table 1).
- Nutrition health disparities include differences in incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of diet-related diseases and conditions. Often, race, ethnicity, and the social determinants of health are associated with dietary intake and related health disparities. This report describes the nutrition health disparities research supported by NIH over the past decade and offers future research opportunities relevant to NIH's mission as described in the Strategic Plan for NIH Nutrition Research.
- Having a preterm birth is associated with future cardiovascular risk. Non-Hispanic Black women have higher rates of preterm birth than non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women, but nativity-related disparities in preterm birth are not well understood.
- Childhood exposure to neighborhood firearm violence adversely affects mental and physical health across the life course. Study objectives were to (1) quantify racial disparities in these exposures across the U.S. and (2) assess changes during the COVID-19 pandemic, when firearm violence increased.
- Factors predisposing asymptomatic individuals within the community to venous thromboembolism are not fully understood. This study characterizes the incidence and determinants of venous thromboembolism among the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort with a focus on race/ethnicity and obesity.
- Non-Hispanic Black infants experience disproportionately high risks of low birth weight compared with non-Hispanic White infants, particularly among mothers with high educational attainment and greater socioeconomic advantage. This study investigates how maternal early-life disadvantage contributes to ongoing racial birth weight inequities among U.S. college‒educated mothers, specifically declining birth weights with age among non-Hispanic Black mothers.