Environmental Health & Climate Change
- Exposure to environmental noise from within homes has been associated with poor mental health. Existing evidence rests on cross-sectional studies prone to residual confounding, reverse causation, and small sample sizes, failing to adequately consider the causal nature of this relationship. Furthermore, few studies have examined the sociodemographic distribution of noise exposure at a country level.
- Post-stroke physical activity has widespread health benefits. Environmental exposures may shape post-stroke physical activity behavior. This study investigates the relationships between environmental exposures and post-stroke physical activity.
- Attributes of the neighborhood-built environment are associated with self-reported physical activity, but only a few studies have concentrated on device-measured physical activity in Latin America. This study examines the associations of perceived neighborhood-built environment attributes, device-measured sedentary time, and light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in adults from 8 Latin American countries.
- Despite the growing recognition of the importance of neighborhood conditions for cardiometabolic health, causal relationships have been difficult to establish owing to a reliance on cross-sectional designs and selection bias. This is the first natural experiment to examine the impact of neighborhood revitalization on cardiometabolic outcomes in residents from 2 predominantly African American neighborhoods, one of which has experienced significant revitalization (intervention), whereas the other has not (comparison).
- Neighborhood walkability has been established as a potentially important determinant of various health outcomes that are distributed inequitably by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic status. The objective of this study is to assess the differences in walkability across major urban centers in the U.S.
- In an era of COVID-19, Black Lives Matter, and unsustainable healthcare spending, efforts to address the root causes of health are urgently needed. Research linking medical spending to variation in neighborhood resources is critical to building the case for increased funding for social conditions. However, few studies link neighborhood factors to medical spending. This study assesses the relationship between neighborhood social and environmental resources and medical spending across the spending distribution.
- This study presents a framework for identifying “high-risk” days for asthma attacks associated with elevated concentrations of criteria pollutants using local information to warn citizens on days when the concentrations differ from Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality Index (AQI) warnings. Studies that consider the unique mixture of pollutants and the health data specific to a city provide additional information for asthma self-management. This framework is applied to air pollution and asthma data to identify supplemental warning days in Houston, Texas.
- In answer to the question of how academic institutions will meet medical education needs and public health challenges of the 21st century, a strong, vibrant, and sustained community partnership has been developed to teach public health, address community public health needs, and develop health policy to sustain these improvements, all with a practical approach. In this paper, the partnership between the University of Vermont College of Medicine and various community agencies is described from the perspective of how the community can benefit from educational efforts in public health.
- The adverse respiratory effects of ground-level ozone are well established. Ozone is the air pollutant most consistently projected to increase under future climate change.