Influence of Unhealthy Food Environment on Premature Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Brazil: An Ecologic ApproachCardiovascular disease is the main cause of general and premature death of adults aged 30–69 years in Brazil and around the world. Unhealthy food environments have been implicated as one of the factors associated with cardiovascular disease morbimortality because they affect people's health conditions and nutrition. This study aims to explore the association between unhealthy food environments (deserts/swamps) and premature cardiovascular disease mortality in the Brazilian population.
Premature Deaths Attributable to the Consumption of Ultraprocessed Foods in BrazilUltraprocessed foods have been associated with an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer as well as all-cause mortality. The study aimed to estimate premature deaths attributable to the consumption of ultraprocessed food in Brazil.
COVID-19‒Related Childhood BMI Increases in China: A Health Surveillance‒Based Ambispective Cohort AnalysisThe COVID-19 pandemic‒related BMI gain and obesity prevalence changes in children have not been clearly elucidated, especially in China. This study aims to assess the impact of pandemic-related BMI and obesity prevalence change in Chinese children aged 8–12 years.
A Cost Effectiveness Model of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods in the Brazilian National Health SystemThe use of long-acting reversible contraceptives is low among adolescents owing to the high up-front cost. In this study, a 5-year cost-effectiveness model and budget impact analysis were used to compare the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives with the use of combined oral contraceptives among Brazilian adolescents.
Risk Assessment in Artisanal Fisheries in Developing Countries: A Systematic ReviewArtisanal fisheries generally do not have injury prevention plans and safety or quality management systems on board, thus making them prone to more fatal and nonfatal injuries. The objective of the study is to systematically review and synthesize the literature to identify the risks of injuries (fatal and nonfatal) and health problems in artisanal fisheries in developing countries.
Workplace Violence, Workforce Stability, and Well-being in China's Psychiatric HospitalsWorkplace violence against psychiatric professionals is a growing problem, yet nationally representative data in China are lacking. This study examines workplace violence against psychiatrists and psychiatric nurses in China as well as its association with workforce stability and well-being .
Perceived Urban Environment Attributes and Device-Measured Physical Activity in Latin America: An 8-Nation StudyAttributes of the neighborhood-built environment are associated with self-reported physical activity, but only a few studies have concentrated on device-measured physical activity in Latin America. This study examines the associations of perceived neighborhood-built environment attributes, device-measured sedentary time, and light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in adults from 8 Latin American countries.
Modeling COVID-19 Mortality Across 44 Countries: Face Covering May Reduce DeathsDespite ongoing efforts to vaccinate communities against COVID-19, the necessity of face mask use in controlling the pandemic remains subject to debate. Several studies have investigated face masks and COVID-19, covering smaller and less diverse populations than this study's sample. This study examines a hypothesized association of face-covering mandates with COVID-19 mortality decline across 44 countries in 2 continents.
Equitability of Individual and Population Interventions to Reduce Obesity: A Modeling Study in MexicoModeling studies have estimated the potential impact and cost effectiveness of interventions to reduce obesity; few have focused on their equity across socioeconomic groups. This study aims to compare the equitability of individual- and population-level interventions to reduce obesity in Mexico.
A Community Health Worker–Led Multicomponent Program to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening in South Asian Women: A Cluster RCTSouth Asian women in Hong Kong have low cervical cancer screening uptake because of multiple barriers to utilizing health resources. Interventions that effectively modify the cancer screening behaviors of this population are warranted. This study evaluates the effects of a community health worker–led multicomponent intervention on improving cervical cancer screening uptake among South Asian women in Hong Kong.
The Association Between Health Literacy and Self-rated Health Among Residents of China Aged 15–69 YearsHealth literacy is a critical determinant of health. However, the association between health literacy and outcomes among Chinese residents has not been studied using nationally representative data. This study examines the association between health literacy and self-rated health among Chinese residents based on the 2017 China Health Literacy Survey.
Effects of Malaria Interventions During Pregnancy on Low Birth Weight in MalawiIn malaria-endemic countries, malaria during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight (i.e., <2.5 kg). However, the effects of the widely promoted and recommended approaches of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets for pregnant women on low birth weight have been insufficiently examined. This analysis investigates the independent and combined effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets on low birth weight among Malawian children.
Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Development Outcomes in Ceará, Brazil: A Population-based StudyMore than 200 million children fail to reach their full developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries. Adverse childhood experiences, maternal mental health, and intimate partner violence are negatively associated with child development outcomes. The relationship of these risk factors with child communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving, and personal–social development scores in Brazil are assessed.
Trends in the Burden of Untreated Caries of Permanent Teeth in China, 1993–2017: An Age–Period–Cohort Modeling StudyThis study aims to identify the trends in incidence and prevalence of untreated caries in permanent teeth in China during 1993–2017.
Food Insecurity and Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive Individuals in Rural KenyaIntimate partner violence and food insecurity are both structural drivers of HIV acquisition, care, and treatment, but little is known about how the 2 conditions intersect in the lives of those already living with HIV.
Impact of Individual and Combined Lifestyle Factors on Mortality in China: A Cohort StudyAlthough numerous studies have suggested that lifestyle-related factors are associated with chronic diseases and preventable deaths, limited evidence is available for the Chinese population.
Assessing an App-Based Child Restraint System Use Intervention in China: An RCTWhile child restraint systems are effective in protecting children from crash-related injuries and deaths, their use in China is extremely low. This study assessed the effectiveness of child restraint system education with and without behavioral skills training on improved use and explored participants’ views regarding content and delivery of an onsite intervention and online (WeChat) boosters.
Perception of Safety and Its Association With Physical Activity in Adolescents in MexicoLow levels of physical activity are associated with several noncommunicable diseases. In Mexico, 39.5% of adolescents do not meet WHO physical activity guidelines. Previous literature suggests an association between perception of safety and physical activity. This paper examines the association between perceived crime and pedestrian safety and physical activity in Mexican adolescents.
Reducing Both Food Insecurity and Excess Body Weight in Costa Rican Women: A Cluster Randomized TrialThe coexistence of food insecurity and excess body weight has been well documented in women. Both food insecurity and excess body weight have multiple consequences for physical and mental health. Concerns have been raised about interventions aimed to reduce food insecurity because these interventions might contribute to excess body weight, particularly in adult women. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to simultaneously reduce food insecurity and body weight through alleviating discouragement—which women described as feeling sad, depressed, hopeless, and lacking drive to do important activities, such as finding a job or studying more—by increasing women's empowerment.
Potassium Intake in India: Opportunity for Mitigating Risks of High-Sodium DietsMost Indians are vegetarian or eat very little meat, which could imply high potassium intake. Because a high-potassium diet could counterbalance the adverse health effects of high-sodium intake, this study aimed to describe potassium relative to sodium intake and investigate the relationship between blood pressure and potassium intake relative to sodium intake in rural and urban India.
Food Access and Nutritional Status of Rural Adolescents in India: Pune Maternal Nutrition StudyThe relationships among food access, foods consumed, and nutritional status and health in developing countries are not well understood. Between 2013 and 2018, differences in the rural food environment and access to food, nutritional status, and body size in the rural villages where the Pune Maternal Nutrition birth cohort was recruited were measured and analyzed.
The Sequelae of Premigration Hunger Among Venezuelan Immigrant Children in the U.S.Since 2015, two defining features of life in Venezuela are hunger and emigration. In the face of the once prosperous nation's hyperinflation and severe economic collapse, food scarcity is a regular occurrence such that undernourishment is a growing issue.1 The UN2 estimates that more than 4 million Venezuelans have left their country because of their nation's manifold social and economic challenges. Although prior research has shown that hunger and the stress of migration can potentiate risk for behavioral health problems, no research has examined the experiences of Venezuelan children in diaspora.
Adverse Childhood Experiences: Prevalence and Association With Adolescent Health in MalawiChildhood adversity is robustly associated with poor health across the life course. However, very few studies have examined the prevalence and implications of adverse childhood experiences in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to measure adverse childhood experiences among adolescents in Malawi and examine the association with mental and physical health outcomes.
Fat Intake and Hypertension Among Adults in China: The Modifying Effects of Fruit and Vegetable IntakeEvidence on the combined effect of fruit and vegetable intake and total fat intake on hypertension is scarce. This study aimed to explore the relationship among fruit and vegetable intake, fat intake, and hypertension risk among Chinese adults.
Variation in Chronic Diseases Across Households, Communities, Districts, and States in IndiaGlobally, chronic noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death and accounted for 6 million deaths in India in 2016. However, the extent to which variation in chronic disease can be attributed to different population levels in India is unknown, as is whether variation in individual-level factors explains outcome variation at different population levels.