Effects of Recent Medicaid Expansions on Infant Mortality by Race and EthnicityThe purpose of this study is to examine year-by-year effects of the 2014 Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on infant mortality by race and ethnicity over the first 6 years.
Social Support and Breastfeeding Outcomes Among a Racially and Ethnically Diverse PopulationSocial support is a modifiable social determinant of health that shapes breastfeeding outcomes and may contribute to racial and ethnic breastfeeding disparities. This study characterizes the relationship between social support and early breastfeeding.
Predicting Postpartum Transition to Primary Care in Community Health CentersAlthough the transition to primary care after routine postpartum care has been recommended to mitigate adverse maternal outcomes, little is known about real-world transition patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the patterns and predictors of transition in a postpartum cohort receiving care at federally qualified health centers and a subcohort of clinically high-risk patients.
Quasinatural Experiment of Postnatal Home Visiting: An Independent Impact Study of Family ConnectsFamily Connects (FC) is a postnatal nurse home visiting program that has scale-up potential because it is brief, inexpensive, and universal. Three investigations have linked Family Connects to improved maternal and family outcomes, but no independent impact studies have been conducted to date.
Medicaid Expansion and Contraceptive Use Among Female High-School StudentsAccess to effective contraception prevents unintended pregnancies among sexually active female youth. Potentially impacted by the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid-related policies, contraception use increased among sexually active high-school students from 2013 to 2019.
Nativity-Related Disparities in Preterm Birth and Cardiovascular Risk in a Multiracial U.S. CohortHaving a preterm birth is associated with future cardiovascular risk. Non-Hispanic Black women have higher rates of preterm birth than non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women, but nativity-related disparities in preterm birth are not well understood.
Elective Deliveries and the Risk of AutismCesarean section and induced deliveries have increased substantially in the U.S., coinciding with increases in autism spectrum disorder. Studies have documented associations between cesarean section deliveries and autism spectrum disorder but have not comprehensively accounted for medical risks. This study evaluates the extent to which cesarean section and induced deliveries are associated with autism spectrum disorder in low-risk births.
Healthcare Utilization and Costs Associated With Perinatal Depression Among Medicaid EnrolleesDifferences in healthcare utilization and medical expenditures associated with perinatal depression are estimated.
Racial Inequities in Birth Weight by Maternal Age Among College-Educated Mothers: The Role of Early DisadvantageNon-Hispanic Black infants experience disproportionately high risks of low birth weight compared with non-Hispanic White infants, particularly among mothers with high educational attainment and greater socioeconomic advantage. This study investigates how maternal early-life disadvantage contributes to ongoing racial birth weight inequities among U.S. college‒educated mothers, specifically declining birth weights with age among non-Hispanic Black mothers.
Prenatal Syphilis Screening Among Medicaid Enrollees in 6 Southern StatesThe rates of syphilis among pregnant women and infants have increased in recent years, particularly in the U.S. South. Although state policies require prenatal syphilis testing, recent screening rates comparable across Southern states are not known. The purpose of this study is to measure syphilis screening among Medicaid enrollees with delivery in states in the U.S. South.
Gestational Diabetes and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy by Maternal BirthplaceGestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase the risk for future adverse health outcomes in the pregnant woman and baby, and disparities exist in the rates of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy by race/ethnicity. The objective of this study is to identify the differences in gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy rates by maternal place of birth within race/ethnicity groups.
Maternal Substance Use Disorders and Accidental Drug Poisonings in ChildrenRisk factors for accidental drug poisonings in children are poorly understood, including the association with maternal substance use. This study seeks to determine whether maternal substance use disorders before birth are associated with the future risk of accidental drug poisonings in young children.
The Impact of a Population-Based System of Care Intervention on Enhanced Prenatal Care and Service Utilization Among Medicaid-Insured Pregnant WomenEnhanced prenatal/postnatal care home visiting programs for Medicaid-insured women have significant positive impacts on care and health outcomes. However, enhanced prenatal care participation rates are typically low, enrolling <30% of eligible women. This study investigates the impacts of a population-based systems approach on timely enhanced prenatal care participation and other healthcare utilization.
Depression in the Postpartum Year and Life Course Economic TrajectoriesPerinatal depression affects 13% of childbearing individuals in the U.S. and has been linked to an increased risk of household economic insecurity in the short term. This study aims to assess the relationship between perinatal depression and long-term economic outcomes.
Severe Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality in Women With Intellectual and Developmental DisabilitiesDespite increased attention on severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality, scant research exists on adverse maternal outcomes in women with disabilities. This study compares the rates of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in women with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.
Gestational Diabetes and Overweight/Obesity: Analysis of Nulliparous Women in the U.S., 2011–2019The rates of gestational diabetes mellitus are increasing in parallel with the rates of overweight and obesity. This analysis examines nationwide trends in the population-attributable fraction for gestational diabetes mellitus associated with prepregnancy overweight and obesity.
Partisan Control of U.S. State Governments: Politics as a Social Determinant of Infant HealthState policies and programs affect population health; yet, little is known about the connections between health and the political institutions and actors that prescribe and execute those policies and programs.
Prenatal Care Adequacy Among Women With Disabilities: A Population-Based StudyThis study examines prenatal care adequacy among women with physical, sensory, and intellectual/developmental disabilities, compared with that among women without disabilities.
Maternal and Child Mortality: Analysis of Nurse Home Visiting in 3 RCTsThe impact of intensive prenatal and infant/toddler nurse home visiting on low-income mothers’ and children's survival was examined in 3 RCTs following participants over 2-decade periods after trial registration during pregnancy (data gathered between 1978 and 2015 and analyzed between 2016 and 2020).
Association of State Gestational Age Limit Abortion Laws With Infant MortalityA growing number of state legislatures have passed laws that restrict access to abortion care after a specified gestational age (gestational age limit laws). The impact of these laws on maternal and child population health outcomes and inequities is unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether states that implement gestational age limit laws experience subsequent changes in rates of infant mortality.
Couple-Based Physical Activity Planning for New Parents: A Randomized TrialThe demands of parenthood may limit the pursuit of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), establish inactivity patterns into middle age, and lead to long-term poorer health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a couple-based planning skills intervention to support MVPA from baseline (~2 months after birth) up to 6 months later in first-time parents.
Paid Family Leave and Mental Health in the U.S.: A Quasi-Experimental Study of State PoliciesSeveral U.S. states have implemented paid family leave policies for new parents. Few studies have evaluated the impacts of U.S. paid family leave policies on families’ health. This study tests the hypothesis that paid family leave policies in California and New Jersey improved parent and child mental health.
Prepregnancy Counseling Among U.S. Women With Diabetes and Hypertension, 2016–2018Individuals who have diabetes or hypertension established before pregnancy are at increased risk for maternal and infant health complications. Guidelines recommend that providers deliver prepregnancy counseling, but little is known about the receipt of those services among patients with chronic conditions.
The Impact of a Lifestyle Intervention on Postpartum Weight Retention Among At-Risk Hispanic WomenThis study assesses the impact of a culturally modified, motivationally targeted, individually tailored intervention on postpartum weight retention among Hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.
Zika Prevention Behaviors Among Women of Reproductive Age in Puerto Rico, 2016Zika virus is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites. Because Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, reproductive-aged women need protection from Zika virus infection. This report describes Zika virus prevention behaviors among women aged 18–49 years and assesses whether pregnancy status and healthcare provider counseling increases Zika virus prevention behaviors.