Assessing Female Suicide From a Health Equity Viewpoint, U.S. 2004–2018Geographic and urbanization differences in female suicide trends across the U.S. necessitates suicide prevention efforts on the basis of geographic variations. The purpose of this study was to assess female suicide rates by mechanism within Census divisions and by urbanicity to help inform geographically tailored approaches for suicide prevention strategies.
A Response to the President's Call to Support Public Mental HealthIn his 2022 State of the Union address, President Biden outlined an ambitious plan for supporting public mental health in the U.S., which he said faces an unprecedented mental health crisis.1 To support that claim, he cited statistics showing that during the peak of the pandemic, nearly 40% of Americans experienced symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas access to mental health treatment remains poor, particularly for African American and Latino individuals. He also cited emerging evidence of the harms of social media use on the mental health of adolescents and young adults, echoing recent comments from the Surgeon General.
Suicide Among Males Across the Lifespan: An Analysis of Differences by Known Mental Health StatusSuicide among males is a major public health challenge. In 2019, males accounted for nearly 80% of the suicide deaths in the U.S., and suicide was the eighth leading cause of death for males aged ≥10 years. Males who die by suicide are less likely to have known mental health conditions than females; therefore, it is important to identify prevention points outside of mental health systems. The purpose of this analysis was to compare suicide characteristics among males with and without known mental health conditions by age group to inform prevention.
Food Insecurity and Mental Well-Being in Immigrants: A Global AnalysisThis study estimates the prevalence of food insecurity, mental well-being, and their associations among immigrants and compares the food insecurity–mental well-being associations with nonimmigrants globally and by region.
Mental Illness in Adults With HIV and HCV Infection: Indian Health Service, 2001–2020Mental health disorders (MHDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in people living with HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and HIV/HCV coinfection are common and result in significant morbidity. However, there are no national prevalence estimates of these comorbidities in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults with HIV, HCV infection, or HIV/HCV coinfection. This study estimates the prevalence of MHD and SUD diagnoses in AI/AN adults diagnosed with HIV, HCV infection, or HIV/HCV coinfection within the Indian Health Service (IHS).
The First Year After Military Service: Predictors of U.S. Veterans’ Suicidal IdeationLittle is known about predictors of military veterans’ suicidal ideation as they transition from service to civilian life, a potentially high-risk period that represents a critical time for intervention. This study examined factors associated with veterans’ suicidal ideation in the first year after military separation.
Clusters of Adversity Types Among U.S. Youth: Associations With Mental HealthChildhood adversities are risk factors for subsequent mental health problems. Research commonly focuses on adverse childhood experiences, despite evidence that other exposures, such as neighborhood violence or peer victimization, co-occur with adverse childhood experiences and are associated with similar mental health outcomes. This study explored the clustering of these exposures and examined the associations with mental health.
Environmental Noise Exposure and Mental Health: Evidence From a Population-Based Longitudinal StudyExposure to environmental noise from within homes has been associated with poor mental health. Existing evidence rests on cross-sectional studies prone to residual confounding, reverse causation, and small sample sizes, failing to adequately consider the causal nature of this relationship. Furthermore, few studies have examined the sociodemographic distribution of noise exposure at a country level.
Pharmaceutical Side Effects and the Sex Differences in Depression and DistressWomen suffer from depression at higher rates than men. This difference is well established, although a consolidated explanation remains elusive. This study examines the role played by medications with depression or suicidality as a potential side effect in explaining the sex difference in depression.
Allostatic Load and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisAllostatic load, a measure of stress-related physiologic dysregulation, is associated with numerous mortality risk factors. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the relationship between high allostatic load (i.e., increased dysregulation versus low dysregulation) and mortality (cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality).
Associations of Passive and Active Screen Time With Psychosomatic Complaints of AdolescentsIncreased screen time is a ubiquitous part of adolescent life and is adversely associated with their well-being. However, it remains unclear whether different types of screen time have equivalent associations, or if relationships are dose-dependent.
Substance Use Disorders Among Medicare Beneficiaries: Prevalence, Mental and Physical Comorbidities, and Treatment BarriersThis study aimed to determine the prevalence of treated and untreated substance use disorders among Medicare beneficiaries, the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries with substance use disorders, and reasons for their unmet needs.
Veterans Crisis Line Call Outcomes: Distress, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicidal UrgencyThis study evaluates the effectiveness of the Veterans Crisis Line on immediate call outcomes (i.e., caller distress, suicidal ideation, and suicidal urgency) for veterans who provide identifying information.
Rural–Urban Comparisons in the Rates of Self-Harm, U.S., 2018This study compares rural and urban differences in the rates of nonfatal self-harm in the U.S. in 2018.
Treatment Engagement Following a Positive Mental Health Screening QuestionnaireLess than half of U.S. adolescents with major depressive disorder receive treatment. Despite the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 2016 statement supporting primary care major depressive disorder screening, there is limited data examining whether positive screens prompt treatment engagement. This study evaluated treatment engagement following a positive Patient Health Questionnaire-Adolescent Version screen and assessed the impact of demographics, clinical variables, and provider recommendations on treatment engagement.
Practical Guidance for Using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data: Merging States and Scoring Adverse Childhood ExperiencesThe Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national health-related survey with an optional adverse childhood experience (ACE) module. States use varying methodologies, question formats, and sampling frames, and little guidance exists for conducting multistate explorations of adverse childhood experiences. In this study, 6 adverse childhood experience scoring approaches are compared, and practical recommendations are offered for when and how each approach can be utilized most effectively.
Optimism and Lipid Profiles in Midlife: A 15-Year Study of Black and White AdultsOptimism is associated with better cardiovascular health, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms and whether protective relationships are consistently observed across diverse groups. This study examines optimism's association with lipid profiles over time and separately among Black and White men and women.
Enforcing Legal Compliance for Covering of Services Promoting Family Mental HealthThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exacerbated a growing children's mental health crisis in the U.S. Mental health–related emergency department visits rose by 31% during COVID-19 onset compared with the same 7-month time period in 2019.1 This sudden increase built on a pre-existing trend of worsening mental health issues among children, as children experienced a 329% increase in visits for deliberate self-harm between 2007 and 2016.2 Absent intervention, these childhood mental health challenges will have long-term health and economic consequences that propagate disparities.
Victim–Offender Relationship and the Emotional, Social, and Physical Consequences of Violent VictimizationResearch is equivocal about how the social relationship between victims and offenders is linked to the emotional, social, and physical consequences of violence. This study examines the association of victim–offender relationship with the adverse outcomes reported by injured and uninjured victims of violence.
Role of Mental Health in the Association Between E-Cigarettes and Cannabis UseE-cigarette use may be associated prospectively with subsequent cannabis use among U.S. adolescents. However, it remains unclear whether this association differs by individual mental health status. This longitudinal study examines effect modifications by mental health status.
Change in Gender on Record and Transgender Adults’ Mental or Behavioral HealthWithin gender-diverse populations, gender-affirming changes in gender on record may improve mental or behavioral health. This study uses claims data to investigate whether sex assigned at birth modifies the association between change in gender on record and mental or behavioral health.
COVID-19 Vaccination and Mental Health: A Difference-In-Difference Analysis of the Understanding America StudyMental health problems increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The knowledge that one is less at risk after being vaccinated may alleviate distress, but this hypothesis remains unexplored. This study tests whether psychological distress declined in those vaccinated against COVID-19 in the U.S. and whether changes in anticipatory fears mediated any association.
Suicide Risk Among Hospitalized Versus Discharged Deliberate Self-Harm Patients: Generalized Random Forest Analysis Using a Large Claims Data SetSuicide rates are extremely high among emergency department patients seen for deliberate self-harm. Inpatient hospitalization is often recommended for these patients, but evidence on the suicide prevention impacts of hospitalization is scarce. Confounding by indication and challenges to implementing randomized designs are barriers to advances in this field.
Diagnoses and Treatment After Depression Screening in Primary Care Among YouthDepression screening is universally recommended for adolescents presenting in primary care settings in the U.S. However, little is known about how depression screening affects the likelihood of being diagnosed with a mental disorder or accessing mental health care over time.
Suicidality Among Sexual Minority Adults: Gender, Age, and Race/Ethnicity DifferencesLesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals have elevated suicide risk, but there is little information available about how this risk may vary by gender, age, and race/ethnicity.