Substance Use Disorders
Assessing the Costs of Excessive Alcohol Consumption in MinnesotaAlcohol consumption, particularly excessive drinking, incurs a high societal cost. This study aimed to apply current state-specific data from 1 state, Minnesota, to established national methods for estimating the societal cost of excessive alcohol consumption for 2 purposes: first, to update the cost estimate for the state and, second, to understand the potential benefits of using state-specific data versus a national apportionment strategy for economic burden estimates.
A Risk Education Program Decreases Leftover Prescription Opioid Retention: An RCTRetaining leftover prescription opioids poses the risks of diversion, misuse, overdose, and death for youth and other family members. This study examined whether a new educational program would enhance risk perceptions and disposal intentions among parents and decrease their retention of leftover prescription opioids.
At-School Victimization and Alcohol Use Among Minoritized U.S. Youth, 2009–2017Sexual minority and/or racial/ethnic minority youth may use alcohol at school as a form of minority stress-based coping. Polyvictimization is particularly prevalent among sexual minority and/or racial/ethnic minority youth and may be a useful proxy measure for minority stressors.
The Impact of Cannabis Packaging Characteristics on Perceptions and IntentionsAs cannabis increasingly becomes a consumer product in the U.S., its product packaging has become critically important to regulators. This study examined the influence of recreational cannabis packaging characteristics.
Racial‒Ethnic Disparities of Buprenorphine and Vivitrol Receipt in MedicaidExpanding access to medications for opioid use disorder is a cornerstone to addressing the opioid overdose epidemic. However, recent research suggests that the distribution of medications for opioid use disorder has been inequitable. This study analyzes the racial‒ethnic disparities in the receipt of medications for opioid use disorder among Medicaid patients diagnosed with opioid use disorder.
Trends and Characteristics of Prenatal Cannabis Use in the U.S., 2002–2019The prevalence of prenatal cannabis use has nearly doubled in the U.S. from 2002 to 2017. As cannabis legalization continues to expand, this study aimed to estimate the recent trends in the prevalence of cannabis use, cannabis dependence, and cannabis risk perceptions among U.S. pregnant people.
Binge Drinking and Alcohol Problems Among Moderate Average-Level DrinkersA significant amount of binge drinking among adults escapes public health scrutiny because it occurs among individuals who drink at a moderate average level. This observational study examined the role of a binge pattern of drinking in predicting alcohol problems among moderate drinkers in a U.S. national sample of adults.
Alcohol Consumption and 15 Causes of Fatal Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisThe proportion of fatal nontraffic injuries that involve high levels of alcohol use or alcohol intoxication was assessed by cause of injury to generate alcohol-attributable fractions. Updated alcohol-attributable fractions can contribute to improved estimates of the public health impact of excessive alcohol use.
Differences in Mortality Among Infants With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal SyndromePrior studies are mixed regarding whether infants diagnosed with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome have a higher risk of mortality than other infants. However, these studies have not accounted for whether mothers of infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome received medication for opioid use disorder in pregnancy.
Prescription History Among Individuals Dispensed Opioid Prescriptions, 2017–2020In response to the opioid overdose crisis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain (CDC Guideline) in 2016, which included recommendations to initiate opioids carefully and only when expected benefits outweigh risks.1 Although opioid prescriptions have decreased in recent years,2 an estimated 9.4 million people misused opioids in 2020.3 Little is known about how prescriptions dispensed to opioid-naive individuals (i.e., those new to opioid therapy) have changed in recent years; previous research focused on commercially insured individuals from 2012 to 2017.
Comparing Outpatient Opioids, High-Risk Prescribing, and Opioid Poisoning Between Transgender and Cisgender Veterans: A Cross-sectional AnalysisTransgender veterans have a high prevalence of substance use disorder and physical and mental-health comorbidities, which are associated with prescription opioid use and overdose risk. This study compares receipt of outpatient opioids, high-risk opioid prescribing, and opioid poisoning between transgender and cisgender (i.e., nontransgender) veterans.
Dual Use of Nicotine and Cannabis Through Vaping Among AdolescentsThis study seeks to identify adolescent nicotine and cannabis vaping patterns and the characteristics of those adolescents who comprised each pattern.
Opioid Prescribing by Dentists in the Veterans Health AdministrationNonopioid analgesics are more effective for most oral pain, but data suggest that dental prescribing of opioids is excessive. This study evaluates the extent to which opioids exceed recommendations and the characteristics associated with opioid overprescribing by Veterans Health Administration dentists.
Substance Use Disorders Among Medicare Beneficiaries: Prevalence, Mental and Physical Comorbidities, and Treatment BarriersThis study aimed to determine the prevalence of treated and untreated substance use disorders among Medicare beneficiaries, the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries with substance use disorders, and reasons for their unmet needs.
Young Adult Healthcare Exposure and Future Opioid Misuse: A Prospective Cohort StudyOutpatient opioid prescribing is associated with opioid misuse in young adults, but the longitudinal association between general healthcare exposure and opioid misuse has not been explored. The objective of this study is to examine the association between healthcare exposure in young adulthood and future opioid misuse.
Distribution of Opioid Prescribing and High-Risk Prescribing Among U.S. Dentists in 2019It is unknown whether certain dentists account for disproportionate shares of dental opioid prescriptions and high-risk prescriptions. Identifying and characterizing such dentists could inform the targeting of initiatives to improve the appropriateness and safety of dental opioid prescribing.
Trends in Opioid Prescribing by General Dentists and Dental Specialists in the U.S., 2012–2019Evidence suggests that U.S. dentists prescribe opioids excessively. There are limited national data on recent trends in opioid prescriptions by U.S. dentists. In this study, we examined trends in opioid prescribing by general dentists and dental specialists in the U.S. from 2012 to 2019.
Opioids Dispensed in the U.S. by Prescribing Specialty, 2012–2017Increases in opioid prescribing contributed to the opioid epidemic in the U.S. Subsequent efforts to promote safer use of opioids for treating pain included augmenting prescription drug monitoring programs and prescribing guidelines. The purpose of this study is to characterize the distribution of opioids dispensed in the U.S. by specialty.
Simultaneous Alcohol/Cannabis Use and Driving Under the Influence in the U.S.Alcohol and cannabis are commonly involved in motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. This study examines whether simultaneous use of alcohol/cannabis is associated with higher odds of reporting driving under the influence of alcohol and cannabis in the U.S.
Role of Mental Health in the Association Between E-Cigarettes and Cannabis UseE-cigarette use may be associated prospectively with subsequent cannabis use among U.S. adolescents. However, it remains unclear whether this association differs by individual mental health status. This longitudinal study examines effect modifications by mental health status.
Protective Factors for Nicotine and Marijuana Vaping Among U.S. AdolescentsNicotine and marijuana vaping among U.S. adolescents are public health priorities. Research has assessed the demographic and risk factors related to vaping, but there is a dearth of research on protective factors for vaping. On the basis of the healthy youth development perspective, the developmental assets framework is used to assess cumulative protective factors and vaping in a national sample of adolescents.
Trends in Prescription Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesic Use by Race, 1996–2017Identifying racial differences in trends in prescription opioid use (POU) is essential for formulating evidence-based responses to the opioid epidemic. This study analyzes trends in the prevalence of POU and exclusive nonopioid analgesic use (ENA) by race–ethnicity.
Abrupt Discontinuation From Long-Term Opioid Therapy in Massachusetts, 2015–2018In response to the opioid overdose crisis, providers were urged to taper and discontinue patients from long-term opioid therapy; however, abrupt discontinuation may lead to poor health outcomes. This study aims to determine abrupt and tapered discontinuation rates and identify the patient and provider characteristics associated with abrupt discontinuation.
Concurrent Use of Prescription Opioids and Gabapentinoids in Older AdultsConcurrent use of prescription opioids with gabapentinoids may pose risks of serious drug interactions. Yet, little is known about the trends in and patient characteristics associated with concurrent opioid–gabapentinoid use among older Medicare opioid users with chronic noncancer pain.
Maternal Substance Use Disorders and Accidental Drug Poisonings in ChildrenRisk factors for accidental drug poisonings in children are poorly understood, including the association with maternal substance use. This study seeks to determine whether maternal substance use disorders before birth are associated with the future risk of accidental drug poisonings in young children.