Substance Use Disorders
The Impact of Cannabis Decriminalization and Legalization on Road Safety Outcomes: A Systematic ReviewThere is substantial debate concerning the impact of cannabis decriminalization and legalization on road safety outcomes.
Post-Combat-Injury Opioid Prescription and Alcohol Use Disorder in the MilitaryPrevious studies have identified combat exposure and combat traumatic experience as problematic drinking risk factors. Increasing evidence suggests that opioid use increases the risk of alcohol use disorder. This study investigated the association between opioid prescription use after injury and (1) alcohol use disorder and (2) severity of alcohol use disorder among deployed military servicemembers.
Perceived Substance Use Risks Among Never Users: Sexual Identity Differences in a Sample of U.S. Young AdultsLower perceived risk is a well-established risk factor for initiating substance use behaviors and an integral component of many health behavior theories. Established literature has shown that many substance use behaviors are more prevalent among individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual than among those who identify as heterosexual. However, potential differences in perceived risk by sexual identity among individuals with no lifetime use have not been well characterized to date.
Associations of Transactional Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Treatment-Seeking Individuals With Opioid Use DisorderCoinciding with the rise in opioid use across the U.S., the rates of sexually transmitted infections have reached historically high levels, underscoring the need to understand multiple pathways of disease spread. Although prevention is often focused on injection-related behaviors, this study sought to identify the prevalence and associations of a little understood pathway, transactional sex, among individuals with opioid use disorder, including associations of transactional sex with the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses.
Longer-Term Efficacy of a Digital Life-Skills Training for Substance Use PreventionThe main objective of this study was to test the longer-term and differential efficacy of a mobile phone‒based life-skills training program designed to prevent substance use among adolescents.
Assessing the Costs of Excessive Alcohol Consumption in MinnesotaAlcohol consumption, particularly excessive drinking, incurs a high societal cost. This study aimed to apply current state-specific data from 1 state, Minnesota, to established national methods for estimating the societal cost of excessive alcohol consumption for 2 purposes: first, to update the cost estimate for the state and, second, to understand the potential benefits of using state-specific data versus a national apportionment strategy for economic burden estimates.
A Risk Education Program Decreases Leftover Prescription Opioid Retention: An RCTRetaining leftover prescription opioids poses the risks of diversion, misuse, overdose, and death for youth and other family members. This study examined whether a new educational program would enhance risk perceptions and disposal intentions among parents and decrease their retention of leftover prescription opioids.
At-School Victimization and Alcohol Use Among Minoritized U.S. Youth, 2009–2017Sexual minority and/or racial/ethnic minority youth may use alcohol at school as a form of minority stress-based coping. Polyvictimization is particularly prevalent among sexual minority and/or racial/ethnic minority youth and may be a useful proxy measure for minority stressors.
The Impact of Cannabis Packaging Characteristics on Perceptions and IntentionsAs cannabis increasingly becomes a consumer product in the U.S., its product packaging has become critically important to regulators. This study examined the influence of recreational cannabis packaging characteristics.
Racial‒Ethnic Disparities of Buprenorphine and Vivitrol Receipt in MedicaidExpanding access to medications for opioid use disorder is a cornerstone to addressing the opioid overdose epidemic. However, recent research suggests that the distribution of medications for opioid use disorder has been inequitable. This study analyzes the racial‒ethnic disparities in the receipt of medications for opioid use disorder among Medicaid patients diagnosed with opioid use disorder.
Trends and Characteristics of Prenatal Cannabis Use in the U.S., 2002–2019The prevalence of prenatal cannabis use has nearly doubled in the U.S. from 2002 to 2017. As cannabis legalization continues to expand, this study aimed to estimate the recent trends in the prevalence of cannabis use, cannabis dependence, and cannabis risk perceptions among U.S. pregnant people.
Binge Drinking and Alcohol Problems Among Moderate Average-Level DrinkersA significant amount of binge drinking among adults escapes public health scrutiny because it occurs among individuals who drink at a moderate average level. This observational study examined the role of a binge pattern of drinking in predicting alcohol problems among moderate drinkers in a U.S. national sample of adults.
Alcohol Consumption and 15 Causes of Fatal Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisThe proportion of fatal nontraffic injuries that involve high levels of alcohol use or alcohol intoxication was assessed by cause of injury to generate alcohol-attributable fractions. Updated alcohol-attributable fractions can contribute to improved estimates of the public health impact of excessive alcohol use.
Differences in Mortality Among Infants With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal SyndromePrior studies are mixed regarding whether infants diagnosed with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome have a higher risk of mortality than other infants. However, these studies have not accounted for whether mothers of infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome received medication for opioid use disorder in pregnancy.
Prescription History Among Individuals Dispensed Opioid Prescriptions, 2017–2020In response to the opioid overdose crisis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain (CDC Guideline) in 2016, which included recommendations to initiate opioids carefully and only when expected benefits outweigh risks.1 Although opioid prescriptions have decreased in recent years,2 an estimated 9.4 million people misused opioids in 2020.3 Little is known about how prescriptions dispensed to opioid-naive individuals (i.e., those new to opioid therapy) have changed in recent years; previous research focused on commercially insured individuals from 2012 to 2017.
Comparing Outpatient Opioids, High-Risk Prescribing, and Opioid Poisoning Between Transgender and Cisgender Veterans: A Cross-sectional AnalysisTransgender veterans have a high prevalence of substance use disorder and physical and mental-health comorbidities, which are associated with prescription opioid use and overdose risk. This study compares receipt of outpatient opioids, high-risk opioid prescribing, and opioid poisoning between transgender and cisgender (i.e., nontransgender) veterans.
Dual Use of Nicotine and Cannabis Through Vaping Among AdolescentsThis study seeks to identify adolescent nicotine and cannabis vaping patterns and the characteristics of those adolescents who comprised each pattern.
Opioid Prescribing by Dentists in the Veterans Health AdministrationNonopioid analgesics are more effective for most oral pain, but data suggest that dental prescribing of opioids is excessive. This study evaluates the extent to which opioids exceed recommendations and the characteristics associated with opioid overprescribing by Veterans Health Administration dentists.
Substance Use Disorders Among Medicare Beneficiaries: Prevalence, Mental and Physical Comorbidities, and Treatment BarriersThis study aimed to determine the prevalence of treated and untreated substance use disorders among Medicare beneficiaries, the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries with substance use disorders, and reasons for their unmet needs.
Young Adult Healthcare Exposure and Future Opioid Misuse: A Prospective Cohort StudyOutpatient opioid prescribing is associated with opioid misuse in young adults, but the longitudinal association between general healthcare exposure and opioid misuse has not been explored. The objective of this study is to examine the association between healthcare exposure in young adulthood and future opioid misuse.
Distribution of Opioid Prescribing and High-Risk Prescribing Among U.S. Dentists in 2019It is unknown whether certain dentists account for disproportionate shares of dental opioid prescriptions and high-risk prescriptions. Identifying and characterizing such dentists could inform the targeting of initiatives to improve the appropriateness and safety of dental opioid prescribing.
Trends in Opioid Prescribing by General Dentists and Dental Specialists in the U.S., 2012–2019Evidence suggests that U.S. dentists prescribe opioids excessively. There are limited national data on recent trends in opioid prescriptions by U.S. dentists. In this study, we examined trends in opioid prescribing by general dentists and dental specialists in the U.S. from 2012 to 2019.
Opioids Dispensed in the U.S. by Prescribing Specialty, 2012–2017Increases in opioid prescribing contributed to the opioid epidemic in the U.S. Subsequent efforts to promote safer use of opioids for treating pain included augmenting prescription drug monitoring programs and prescribing guidelines. The purpose of this study is to characterize the distribution of opioids dispensed in the U.S. by specialty.
Simultaneous Alcohol/Cannabis Use and Driving Under the Influence in the U.S.Alcohol and cannabis are commonly involved in motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. This study examines whether simultaneous use of alcohol/cannabis is associated with higher odds of reporting driving under the influence of alcohol and cannabis in the U.S.
Role of Mental Health in the Association Between E-Cigarettes and Cannabis UseE-cigarette use may be associated prospectively with subsequent cannabis use among U.S. adolescents. However, it remains unclear whether this association differs by individual mental health status. This longitudinal study examines effect modifications by mental health status.