Substance Use Disorders
- Several factors influence the risk of harms associated with prescription opioids.1 One modifiable factor is the co-prescription of medications such as benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics, and gabapentinoids, which potentiate opioids’ respiratory depressant effects,2,3 slowing breathing and increasing risk of accidental overdose.4 Co-prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioids decreased after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning of 2016.5 However, it is unknown how the co-prescription of opioids with other respiratory depressant potentiators has changed recently.
- Opioid and sedative/hypnotic drug overdoses are major causes of morbidity in the U.S. This study compares 12-month incidence of fatal unintentional drug overdose, suicide, and other mortality among emergency department patients presenting with nonfatal opioid or sedative/hypnotic overdose.
- Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in the U.S. but entail safety concerns, including dependency. In pediatrics, many indications lack trial data. Authors aimed to describe youth initiating prescription benzodiazepine treatment, identify potential indications and prescribing concerns, estimate the duration of treatment by potential indication, and identify factors that predict long-term use.
- Individuals with mental health and substance use problems have higher rates of smoking and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality than the general population. These increased rates can be explained, in part, by lower cessation rates compared with overall declines in tobacco use in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine tobacco screening and cessation counseling in healthcare settings to compare rates for adults with mental health and substance use problems with those without such problems.