Tobacco & Nicotine
Sustained Effects of a Systems-Based Strategy for Tobacco Cessation AssistancePrimary care settings that serve lower-income patients are critical for reducing tobacco-related disparities; however, tobacco-related care in these settings remains low. This study examined whether processes for the provision of tobacco cessation care are sustained 18 and 24 months after implementing a health system-level intervention consisting of electronic health record functionality changes and expansion of rooming staff roles.
Use of Traditional Smokeless, Snus, and Dissolvable Tobacco Among U.S. YouthSnus, dissolvable, and traditional smokeless tobacco product use is often amalgamated in youth epidemiologic research despite differences across these products. Prevalence, trends, and correlates of U.S. youth use across different classes of oral tobacco products are unknown.
Leveling the Playing Field: Mailing Pharmacotherapy to Medicaid Members Who SmokeSmoking rates differ by insurance type; rates are often double for Medicaid and uninsured compared with that for Medicare or privately insured. State-funded tobacco quitlines’ provision of free nicotine replacement therapy varies. In some states, Medicaid beneficiaries must obtain nicotine replacement therapy from a physician, whereas others get nicotine replacement therapy mailed to them.
Quitline Promotion to Medicaid Members Who Smoke: Effects of COVID-19–Specific Messaging and a Free Patch OfferPeople who smoke are at increased risk of serious COVID-19-related disease but have had reduced access to cessation treatment during the pandemic. This study tested 2 approaches to promoting quitline services to Medicaid members who smoke at high rates: using COVID-19-specific messaging and offering free nicotine patches. The hypotheses were that both would increase enrollment.
COVID-19 Restrictions and Adolescent Cigarette and E-cigarette Use in CaliforniaShelter-in-place orders altered facilitators and barriers to tobacco use (e.g., outlet closures, restricted social gatherings). This study examined whether the duration of time in shelter in place and compliance with different shelter-in-place orders influenced adolescent cigarette and E-cigarette use and how the use may differ by demographic characteristics.
U.S. Adults’ Public Opinion Toward R-Rating Labels for Movies With Cigarette SmokingThe purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of U.S. adults who support, oppose, or are neutral toward a policy designating R-ratings for movies depicting cigarette smoking and to identify predictors of policy opposition or neutrality among a nationally representative sample.
A Longitudinal Analysis of Respiratory Illness and Tobacco Use TransitionsAmong individuals with chronic respiratory conditions, transitions between patterns of tobacco product use are not well understood. This study examines how transitions, including quitting altogether, differ over time between those who do and do not have chronic respiratory conditions.
Changes in Availability of ENDS: 2019–2020, U.S.Events during 2019 and 2020, such as the outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use‒associated lung injury; manufacturer product withdrawals; federal regulations; and coronavirus disease 2019, potentially affected the retail availability of ENDS in the U.S. Measuring changes in ENDS availability informs the understanding of the ENDS marketplace and contextualizes sales trends.
Longitudinal Changes in Smoking Habits in Women and Subsequent Risk of CancerThis study investigated the association between longitudinal smoking habit changes and cancer risk in a cohort of Korean women.
Intersectionality of Sexual Orientation With Race and Ethnicity and Associations With E-Cigarette Use Status Among U.S. YouthAlthough structural discrimination against sexual and racial/ethnicity minorities is a putative risk factor for youth tobacco use, understanding health disparities in youth E-cigarette use at the intersection of sexual orientation, race, and ethnicity is still lacking. This study aims to examine the differences in E-cigarette use prevalence among U.S. youth at the intersections of sexual orientation with race and ethnicity.
Vaping Media Literacy, Harm Perception, and Susceptibility of E-Cigarette Use Among YouthExposure to E-cigarette marketing and media advertisements is prevalent among adolescents. A validated vaping media literacy scale is needed to inform effective vaping prevention programs.
Cost of Cigarette Smoking‒Attributable Productivity Losses, U.S., 2018Information on morbidity-related productivity losses attributable to cigarette smoking, an important component of the economic burden of cigarette smoking, is limited. This study fills this gap by estimating these costs in the U.S. and by state.
Cardiovascular Risk Among Patients Who Smoke: Risk Profiles and Differences by SexSmoking is particularly harmful to the cardiovascular system, and smoking-cessation is a key target for cardiovascular prevention. From a large nationwide database on subjects who visited smoking-cessation services, this study assessed the profile and abstinence rate comparing female with male smokers at high cardiovascular risk.
Disparities in Tobacco Use by Disability and Type: Findings From the 2019 National Health Interview SurveyPeople with disabilities report a higher prevalence of cigarette use than people without disabilities. However, evidence is limited on the relationships between disability type, degree of functional difficulty, and other tobacco product use.
Relative Harm Perceptions of E-Cigarettes Versus Cigarettes, U.S. Adults, 2018–2020It is unknown how U.S. adults’ relative harm perceptions of E-cigarettes versus cigarettes and associated behaviors changed during the E-cigarette or vaping product use‒associated lung injury epidemic (late 2019) and COVID-19 pandemic (since early 2020).
Oral Nicotine Product Awareness and Use Among People Who Smoke and Vape in the U.S.Tobacco-free oral nicotine products are an emerging class of noncombustible nicotine products. Oral nicotine product sales have increased since 2016, although little research has investigated consumer awareness, use, or correlates of oral nicotine product use. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of oral nicotine product awareness and use.
U.S. Trends in Age of Cigar Smoking Initiation by Race/Ethnicity and EducationYounger age of initiating cigar smoking is associated with greater nicotine dependence and current use. Age of initiating cigarette smoking has increased over time, whereas trends in age of initiating cigar smoking remain understudied. These trends were examined by race/ethnicity, by education, and at their intersection.
Different Times Call for Different Measures: Using Retail Sales to Monitor the Tobacco Product LandscapeIn the past 15 years, the tobacco product landscape has evolved rapidly. After the introduction of E-cigarettes in the 2000s and the growth and promotion of several brands, including JUUL, the use of these products rapidly increased among U.S. youth during 2011‒2019.1–3 These increases were driven by multiple factors, including advertising themes that are similar to those previously found to promote youth cigarette smoking,4 flavors that appeal to youth,5 and the introduction of newer products with characteristics that appeal to young people (e.g., smaller and easily concealable or similar in size and shape to a USB flash drive).
Smoking-Cessation Assistance Among Older Adults by Ethnicity/Language PreferenceAlthough smoking prevalence is lower among Hispanic adults than among non-Hispanic White adults, smoking remains a leading cause of preventable death among older Hispanics. This study examines the differences in tobacco assessment and smoking-cessation assistance among older patients seen in community health centers by ethnicity and language preference.
Youth Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Secondhand AerosolSecondhand smoke and secondhand aerosol exposure are important public health concerns. This is the first study to present separate estimates of public indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke and secondhand aerosol exposure among U.S. youth.
Dual Use of Nicotine and Cannabis Through Vaping Among AdolescentsThis study seeks to identify adolescent nicotine and cannabis vaping patterns and the characteristics of those adolescents who comprised each pattern.
Prescription Smoking-Cessation Medication Fills and Spending, 2009–2019Smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death. However, effective medicines, including prescription medications often covered by health insurance, are available to aid cessation.
Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco, and E-Cigarettes: State-Specific Use Patterns Among U.S. Adults, 2017–2018State-level monitoring of changes in tobacco product use can inform tobacco control policy and practice. This study examines the state-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and E-cigarette use and related cigarette quitting behaviors among E-cigarette users during 2017–2018.
Association Between E-Cigarettes and Asthma in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisNumerous studies have revealed the relationship between E-cigarettes and asthma but have shown inconsistent results. This study systematically evaluated the potential association between E-cigarette use and asthma in adolescents.
The Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Prediabetes: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016–2018Both E-cigarette use and the prevalence of prediabetes have risen dramatically in the past decade. It is crucial to understand whether E-cigarette use is associated with the risk of prediabetes.