Tobacco & Nicotine
Quitline Promotion to Medicaid Members Who Smoke: Effects of COVID-19–Specific Messaging and a Free Patch OfferPeople who smoke are at increased risk of serious COVID-19-related disease but have had reduced access to cessation treatment during the pandemic. This study tested 2 approaches to promoting quitline services to Medicaid members who smoke at high rates: using COVID-19-specific messaging and offering free nicotine patches. The hypotheses were that both would increase enrollment.
Different Times Call for Different Measures: Using Retail Sales to Monitor the Tobacco Product LandscapeIn the past 15 years, the tobacco product landscape has evolved rapidly. After the introduction of E-cigarettes in the 2000s and the growth and promotion of several brands, including JUUL, the use of these products rapidly increased among U.S. youth during 2011‒2019.1–3 These increases were driven by multiple factors, including advertising themes that are similar to those previously found to promote youth cigarette smoking,4 flavors that appeal to youth,5 and the introduction of newer products with characteristics that appeal to young people (e.g., smaller and easily concealable or similar in size and shape to a USB flash drive).
Association Between E-Cigarettes and Asthma in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisNumerous studies have revealed the relationship between E-cigarettes and asthma but have shown inconsistent results. This study systematically evaluated the potential association between E-cigarette use and asthma in adolescents.
The Impact of Menthol Cigarette Flavor in the U.S.: Cigarette and ENDS Transitions by Sociodemographic GroupA better understanding of how menthol cigarette flavoring and ENDS impact smoking initiation, cessation, and transitions between tobacco products could help elucidate the potential impact of a U.S. menthol ban on combustible tobacco products.
Re-examining the Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Myocardial Infarction: A Cautionary TaleCross-sectional analyses have suggested that e-cigarette use, independent of combustible cigarette use, elevates the risk of myocardial infarction. Previous researchers confused their own models’ assumptions that these risks were independent with the idea that their analyses validated the presence of independent risks. This study avoids this pitfall.
Association of Smoking and Smoking Cessation With Overall and Cause-Specific MortalitySmoking remains a strong risk factor for premature death. This study examines the associations of nondaily smoking, daily smoking, and smoking cessation with the risks of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
Secondhand Smoking and Depressive Symptoms Among In-School AdolescentsSmoking has been linked with depressive symptoms in adolescents, but data on secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Thus, this study analyzes the association between secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms among in-school adolescents from 22 low- and middle-income countries.
Impact of The Real Cost Media Campaign on Youth Smoking InitiationThe purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between youth exposure to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's national tobacco public education campaign, The Real Cost, and changes in smoking initiation.
Dual Versus Never Use of E-Cigarettes Among American Indians Who SmokeMany American Indian communities have a high prevalence of smoking and e-cigarette use, but factors associated with their dual use are rarely studied.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of The Real Cost Campaign's Effect on Smoking PreventionA previous study found that the Food and Drug Administration's The Real Cost national tobacco education campaign was associated with preventing approximately 350,000 U.S. youth from initiating smoking between 2014 and 2016. This study translates the reduction in smoking initiation into monetary terms by examining the cost effectiveness of the campaign.
The Equity Impact of Proactive Outreach to Smokers: Analysis of a Randomized TrialPopulation-based smoking-cessation services tend to preferentially benefit high-SES smokers, potentially exacerbating disparities. Interventions that include proactive outreach, telephone counseling, and free or low-cost cessation medications may be more likely to help low-SES smokers quit. This analysis evaluated the role of SES in smokers’ response to a population-based proactive smoking-cessation intervention.
Changing Perceptions of Harm of E-Cigarettes Among U.S. Adults, 2012–2015Although the impact of long-term use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on health is still unknown, current scientific evidence indicates that e-cigarettes are less harmful than combustible cigarettes. The study examined whether perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes and perceived addictiveness have changed during 2012–2015 among U.S. adults.
Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive GoodsThe question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit−cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit−cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers’ observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences.
The Quit Experience and Concerns of Smokers With Psychiatric IllnessThe purpose of this study is to better understand the quit experience and concerns of smokers with psychiatric illness (i.e., major depressive, anxiety, psychotic and bipolar disorders) in comparison with those without psychiatric illness.
Perspectives in Implementing a Pragmatic Pediatric Primary Care–Based Intervention TrialThe 2013 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concluded that behavioral interventions are effective in reducing initiation of smoking in youth, recommending primary care clinicians provide education or brief counseling to prevent initiation, and that there are promising trends toward behavioral interventions improving cessation in this population. Our primary care–based intervention RCT conducted between 2000 and 2004, Air It Out, informed these USPSTF recommendations. Our trial was designed to determine whether a pediatric primary care practice–based smoking prevention and cessation intervention would be effective in increasing abstinence rates among adolescents under usual clinic conditions, to inform clinical practice.
Detection of In Vivo DNA Damage Induced by Very Low Doses of Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke Extracts Using a Novel AssayMainstream (MS) smoke, the main smoke inhaled by active smokers, and sidestream (SS) smoke, the main component of secondhand smoke, induce a wide range of DNA lesions. Owing to technical limitations, the in vivo levels of tobacco-induced DNA damage are unknown. Recently, the authors developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to quantify endogenous and induced DNA damage.
A Neo-Strategic Planning Approach to Enhance Local Tobacco Control ProgramsResearch in tobacco control demonstrating best practices is widely disseminated; however, application at the local level is often difficult. Translating research into practice requires a concerted effort to develop an understanding of the evidence and how it can be applied within diverse contexts.
Excise Tax Differences at Oklahoma Smoke Shops: An Opportunity for Inter-Tribal CoordinationOklahoma’s tribal tobacco shops are distributed throughout the state, including in urban areas. During the time frame of this study, state excise tax rates for cigarettes varied by tribe and region, and took five distinct levels, ranging from 5.75 cents to $1.03 per pack.
Tobacco Control and Prevention in Oklahoma: Best Practices in a Preemptive StateFor more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach.
A Brief History of the Tobacco Settlement in OklahomaThe 1998 national multistate Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with the major cigarette manufacturers in the U.S. cultivated hope that payments from that settlement would be used to fund proven programs to prevent and reduce tobacco use. By 2002, tobacco prevention funding across all states reached an all-time high of nearly $750 million per year. However, that early promise was not sustained. Within just 2 years, state funding for tobacco prevention was reduced by more than $200 million.
Post-Cessation Weight Concerns Among Women Calling a State Tobacco QuitlineObese and overweight women who smoke are more likely to be concerned about weight gain following cessation, impacting ability to quit and relapse.
Wreaking “Havoc” on Smoking: Social Branding to Reach Young Adult “Partiers” in OklahomaMore than 25% of young adult Oklahomans smoked cigarettes in 2012. Tobacco marketing campaigns target young adults in social environments like bars/nightclubs. Social Branding interventions are designed to compete directly with this marketing.
Longitudinal Evaluation of the Tobacco Stops with Me CampaignCounter-marketing in tobacco control plays an important role in increasing smoking cessation, reducing overall tobacco use, and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke.
Increased Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Through Oklahoma Hospital System ChangesOklahoma hospitals admit approximately 120,000 tobacco users each year, many for diseases resulting from tobacco use.
Which Nicotine Products Are Gateways to Regular Use?: First-Tried Tobacco and Current Use in College StudentsThe potential for emerging tobacco products (ETPs) to be gateway products for further tobacco use among youth is of significant concern.